Monthly Archives: April 2014

Interlude: America, The Venetian Republic – Part 2

Freedom From Fear

Shay's Rebellion

Shay’s Rebellion

The currency crisis had also created disaffection among the military veterans, who had been paid in Continentals and had watched their war wages fade to nothing following the end of the war. Daniel Shays, an honored soldier and farmer began collaborating with former members of the Sons of Liberty, most prominently Samuel Adams and Colonial Regulators to begin arming veterans for an insurrection against the oppressive post-Revolutionary oligarchical state. Adams had accused the merchant classes of manipulating access to foreign currency to pay down their own debts by reducing specie availability and then increasing the debts of others by increasing the availability of specie when loans were made to farmers. Daniel Shays opposed the local Massachusetts Courts on the grounds of debt relief, but the courts seized his lands and the lands of many others on behalf of the ruling Boston merchants; effectively using debt, taxation and litigation to deprive Shays and the farmers of their property rights in order to deliver their property into the hands of the oligarchy.

The governor, Daniel Bowdoin, had vigorously attempted to counter the policies set by John Hancock as the previous governor which allowed for devalued currency to be accepted in equivalent value to the dollar for payment of debts. This was successful in insulating Massachusetts farmers from the federal currency collapse and allowed for the exportation of devalued currency from the state keeping inflation and new loan interest low. Bowdoin, using the national debt as a political shield, stepped up tax collections and land seizures leading to general protests against his leadership and accusations of collaboration with the merchant oligarchy. Protests led by Daniel Shay’s broke out in what would become known as Shay’s Rebellion; militias assaulted police and tax collectors, shut down the courts and targeted members of the oligarchy for public beatings.

Gov. James Bowdoin

Gov. James Bowdoin

The state of Massachusetts descended into a state of civil war as middle and working class rebels engaged with pro-oligarchical militias throughout the state, by 1786 the situation had grown direly out of control and the oligarchs enlisted 3,000 mercenaries to help them finish the conflict. Samuel Adams, seeing a threat to the power of the landed classes throughout the country, switched allegiances claiming Shay’s was being backed by British agents and that rights to a trial should be suspended on grounds of treason. By early 1787, the mercenary army in addition to the continental army led by George Washington suppressed the rebellion and Marshall Law was declared to maintain control over the state; anyone deemed to have participated in the rebellion was stripped of their rights as Freemen. Bowdoin would use his response to the rebellion to help formulate the Federalist ideology, calling a strong centralized oligarchical government that could prevent the return of what he regarded as ‘peasant rebellions’.  Many of the leaders of the rebellion fled to Canada and Vermont following the conflict leading to the creation of the temporary Vermont Republic and the State of Vermont itself.

President George Washington

President George Washington

The outcome of the conflict led to the collapse of Bowdoin’s abilities to govern and a landslide reelection of John Hancock, who largely granted clemency to all of the rebellions participants. Hancock cut taxes and restructured the state economic system at the expense of the Merchant oligarchy using avoidance of another rebellion as a pretext. Thomas Jefferson did not fear the rebellion spreading further, stating in his infamous ‘Tree of Liberty’ speech that the bloodshed of the conflict was a good thing for maintaining order among the classes and would dissuade further conflicts related to the matter. George Washington on the other hand viewed the rebellion with great alarm, calling for constitutional and government reforms, fearing an eventual civil war and overthrow of the oligarchy by the lower classes; Washington understood the desires of the laborers and farmers, as they had all fought in the Revolutionary War as patriotic equals. Washington was also aware that English espionage with the Native Americans had not ceased despite the end of the war and that some oligarchical entities had considered a bid to return to English rule in despair over the very obvious failures of the Second Continental Congress and the oligarchical states governments. Washington used his influence to bring these oligarchs into the federalist fold, promising a strong central government like that of England’s, which would bring both peace and prosperity through law and order. Federalism and Anti-Federalism would emerge from this conflict among the oligarchical elite, those who wished a new stronger central government and those who wished to retain their power within the competing oligarchical republican states.

In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, Shay’s Rebellion and the threat to oligarchical rule was discussed at length. Those who had previously opposed the formation of a central government and a strong national military under the Anti-Federalist banner abandoned these positions, citing the lack of coordination by both the state and congressional governments in being able to effectively put down Shay’s Rebellion. The ultimate concern of the oligarchs was the preservation of their wealth and power, ideological compromises would have to be made in order to protect their assets from the revolts of the lower classes. What was also addressed was the inefficiency and corruption of the court systems; robbers and vigilantes had used the confederacy system to commit crimes in some states and flee to others for legal asylum, a tactic used by the Southern planter class to destabilize the North for what they called ‘economic warfare’ against the South. The idea of a Popular Vote was immediately rejected at the Convention on the grounds of the rebellion in favor of an Electoral Vote that could nullify the Popular Vote and ensure oligarchical control over the Republic at all times. Initially House Representatives and Senators were to be chosen only by the state legislatures of the oligarchical elite.

The Constitutional Convention

The Constitutional Convention

The model for the Republic of Venice was decidedly adopted over those of the Athenian and Spartan Greek city-states.  A Doge-like executive would be selected as President to be the direct commander-in-chief over the armed forces to clear bureaucratic gridlock and allow for a swift military response to domestic rebellions. A Gran Consiglio of a legislative branch representing the interests of the elite would be created as a counterweight to the President and finally a Venetian Council of Ten or the Supreme Court would be introduced as a third branch judicial body to balance out the other branches. The Republic of Venice was an oligarchical empire that had managed its society through long periods of prosperity through strict laws, political intrigue, domestic surveillance and very strict oligarchical class control. This was assumed to be a more powerful form of government for the American oligarchy and an effective answer to the lack of a strong and willful state. The new Constitution would be created to keep everything the oligarchy had won from their British counterparts, make a compromise on the representation of the middle and lower classes, and create a mechanism of legal control over the populace that could be used to coordinate domestic military operations when needed.

After the Philadelphia Convention, leading figures in the war, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams and Richard Henry Lee publically opposed the constitution citing Anti-Federalist values, citing a threat to individual rights and the promotion of the Presidential position as a return to monarchy. It should be noted that Adams and Lee had played major roles in the previous government and had concerns about the decline of oligarchical rule in the colonies in favor to the central government of the constitution. Thomas Jefferson, another anti-federalist warned against popular votes and popular politics being manipulated by the constitutional government, citing an impending ‘Tyranny of the Majority’ that would strip ‘Freemen’ of their class interests. Patrick Henry wrote extensively of fears that the Federalists sought to create a new aristocracy that resembled the British peerage system, which was not too far from the truth for many Federalist oligarchs.

Samuel Adams

Samuel Adams

The Massachusetts Convention in 1788 was very vitriolic and contentious. Fist fights broke out at the convention between members of the federalist and anti-federalist factions. The impasse between the two groups finally ended when Samuel Adams and John Hancock (also an Anti-Federalist) threatened to unite the Northern farmers against the Convention and overthrow the government of the Confederation unless Constitutional amendments and a Bill of Rights was included. The landed oligarchs took the threat very seriously; Hancock had already made good on several earlier threats and the popularity between Hancock and Adams as ‘men of the people’ would have brought the population behind them. The Constitution was ratified with the debate over the amendments to continue in the 1st US Congress. George Washington was nearly unanimously elected to be the First President of the United States in 1789, viewed by both oligarchical factions and the public alike with immense respect, he would serve as the compromise candidate to get the ball rolling on the new administration of government.

Washington saw his goal as stabilizing the new republic from the past ten years of economic strife. He signed Jay’s Treaty with England, a new trade agreement that would take off some of the international currency pressures against the dollar. Washington set standards for the presidency, only serving two terms to symbolically reject the notion of military dictatorship, and despite being immensely wealthy, accepting the Presidential salary to establish it so less wealthy men could serve in the position. Washington, understanding that he was setting the tone for years to come rejected the use of aristocratic titles for government positions and accepted opposing views in the form of civil debate, rejecting the notion that the Presidency was an office of political violence and potential tyranny, like many of the governors had come to be seen.

Hamilton and Jefferson

Hamilton and Jefferson

The Constitution was largely influence by Alexander Hamilton who had sought to avert the financial collapse of the new republic and contain the potential British influence that could come from it. His initial propositions to have representatives for life modeled after the House of Lords led to accusations of British collaboration which at times were historically murky given the situation at hand. However Hamilton’s proposals to fix the economy as Secretary of the Treasury contradicted this notion, he allowed the federal governments to assume all revolutionary debt from the states in exchange for a centralization of the currency system. Wealthier states and their representatives like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison opposed this debt centralization plan, citing that their taxes would be used as a form of a bail out for less fortunate states; Hamilton saw Jefferson and Madison as being firmly entrenched in their oligarchical beliefs and positions from previous years citing the currency issues that had arisen between the states.

The original three interests of the revolution would firmly split into two camps over the idea of a National Bank:

Madison objected to Hamilton’s proposal to lower the rate of interest and postpone payments on federal debt as not being payment in full; he also objected to the speculative profits being made. Much of the national debt was in the form of bonds issued to Continental veterans, in place of wages the Continental Congress did not have the money to pay. As the bonds continued to go unpaid, many had been pawned for a small fraction of their value. Madison proposed to pay in full, but to divide payment between the original recipient and the present possessor. Others, such as Samuel Livermore of New Hampshire, wished to curb speculation, and reduce taxation, by paying only part of the bond. The disagreements between Madison and Hamilton extended to other proposals Hamilton made to Congress, and drew in Jefferson when he returned from serving as minister to France. Hamilton’s supporters became known as Federalists and Jefferson’s as Republicans.”

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Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were Washington’s top advisors and bitter rivals; Hamilton who had a close relationship with the landed gentry of England through his own family ties sought to create a national banking system to restore American credit and turn the US into an economic force. Jay’s Treaty with Britain was denounced as a result of Hamilton’s close ties to the British and an affront to the French, who were undergoing a republican revolution of their own. Jefferson and his allies supported the anti-monarch bourgeoisie in France and saw Hamilton’s reconciliations as attempts to thwart their plans. Jefferson’s views were largely oligarchical and he sought to restore the predisposition of the Confederation period stating that he was “in a struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest.”

Hamilton suggested that Congress should charter the National Bank with a capitalization of $10 million, one-fifth of which would be handled by the Government. Since the Government did not have the money, it would borrow the money from the bank itself, and repay the loan in ten even annual installments. The rest was to be available to individual investors. The bank was to be governed by a twenty-five member board of directors that was to represent a large majority of the private shareholders, which Hamilton considered essential for his being under a private direction. Hamilton’s bank model had many similarities to that of the Bank of England, except Hamilton wanted to exclude the Government from being involved in public debt, but provide a large, firm, and elastic money supply for the functioning of normal businesses and usual economic development, among other differences. For tax revenue to ignite the bank, it was the same as he had previously proposed; increases on imported spirits: rum, liquor, and whiskey.”

Gold and Silver

Gold and Silver

 

The United States owed a national debt of $90 million in 1790, equivalent to roughly 2.3 billion dollars in debt today;  Hamilton came up with a number of alternative solutions to handle the debt that were enabled through various property and excise taxes. Hamilton had also been instrumental in putting the standard for a bimetallic currency in the Constitution to enable the US to mint its own gold and silver coins and finally run the Spanish gold coin out of circulation. Hamilton argued that by undermining gold to maintain a high price and oversupplying West Indies silver imports to keep the silver price low, silver coins would always be readily available to expand the money supply when needed; Hamilton also proposed the minting of smaller value coins of silver and copper for small transaction with the lower classes. He created a naval inspection service called the Revenue Cutters, a precursor to the Coast Guard, whose primary purpose was to crack down and tax interstate smuggling, especially between anti-federalist oligarchical rivals trying to dodge taxes.

Tensions however would rise as Hamilton’s policy popularity led to a number of public declarations in favor of the merchant oligarchy over the agrarian oligarchy, citing French economic theories that pushed for an advanced manufacturing based economy to pay off large debts. The Copper Panic of 1789 would destabilize the Presidency of George Washington, along with Hamilton’s Policy. The Confederation states had minted their own coins using copper to create a hard currency alternative to the devaluing continental; the British had attempted to destabilize the economic markets by having spies introduce counterfeit copper coins into the American market creating a surplus of the coins and lowering the value of copper. The counterfeiting intensified during the period of Shay’s Rebellion, compounded by the fact that states had engaged in following John Hancock’s lead in exporting the fiat Continental currency and borrowing and issuing new loans with the copper currency. This led to debt disparities between the states and states engaging in copper counterfeiting of their own to contain the exported inflation. By 1789, the market was flooded with the debased coins, sharing an inflation rate well over 400% and the ability to do commerce with the coins ceased; state banks tried to stem the currency circulation by issuing new fiat but this was stopped by Hamilton who feared a return to the Confederacy system and its hyperinflationary issues. The copper was taken out of public circulation leading to another contraction in the public money supply and of available credit.

Whiskey Rebellion

Whiskey Rebellion

The Copper Panic and the Whiskey Excise Tax created an uproar among the farming community. Whiskey had been a frontier form of exchange and the new taxes made it less desirable, cutting into the incomes of the poor and farming classes. The farmers outside of the states especially resented the tax because they did not have Congressional representation and farmers who did have representation did not feel fairly represented, leading back to the ‘no taxation without representation’ conundrum that they had spent a decade fighting to free themselves from. A fresh bout of Indian attacks on Western frontier pushed the Ohio Valley farmers into a state of rebellion as they felt the new government was no different from the old despite the progress that had been made. Local Republican oligarchs preyed upon this sentiment politically, hyping up merchant class conspiracies to defraud the poor of their wealth and enlisting them in ad hoc conventions to discuss new types of republican government.  In 1793, hostilities intensified as tax collectors became the victims of lynch mobs, and effigies of local governors were burned publically. In 1791, the Whiskey Rebellion broke out when several rogue distillers refused to pay taxes; Hamilton was accused, even by many modern historians, of exacerbating the controversy by issuing federal subpoena’s to the frontier distillers to create a popular revolt against direct oligarchical taxation that could be crushed by the military to enrich the creditor class at the expense of the taxpayers once the tax system had been enforced. Many historians believed that Hamilton created the excise tax as a means of social discipline against the veterans of the lower classes for the incidents of Shay’s Rebellion and the earlier military payments crisis in 1783.

Western Pennsylvania entered a state of full blown rebellion, peace talks had been a formality by Washington’s government and Hamilton had issued the spread of countryside propaganda to denounce the claims of the rebels. The rebellion demanded concession of rights for the poor and landless Americans but this was refused in favor of military action and domestic policing to suppress the rebellion. Washington empowered the governors to establish deputized militias that would suppress the gathering of any new militias in Western Pennsylvania. Washington led the American army into Pennsylvania to put down the rebellion, appointing Alexander Hamilton the field commander after tactical control of the region was established. Most of the leaders of the rebellion fled west or into Canada, the participants captured were convicted of treason and later pardoned in 1794.

Washington

Washington

Many oligarchs viewed Washington’s actions favorably, demonstrating decisive military action and government authority in stemming rebellions and enforcing the rule of law. Anti-Federalist oligarchs became more accepting of the new Constitution following this incident but played on agrarian fears to create political distrust against Hamilton and the Federalists, promoting the power of Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr as political contenders to replace the President. Jefferson left Washington’s cabinet after the Whiskey Rebellion, the two would never speak again as Washington considered Jefferson as having a financial hand in the rebellion to undermine the Constitution and of being an agent to French interests. Washington did not trust the new French aristocracy of the Jacobins and their policies of ‘Continental Freemasonry’ which Washington felt were against the principles of traditional oligarchical rule and suggested questionable political morals. Washington’s reasoning’s brought about Republican accusations of close ties to British Freemasonry and the British Royal Family, especially following the political events of Jay’s Treaty which Washington had primarily agreed to as a means of controlling debt.

Washington’s Warning

Farewell Address

Farewell Address

 

George Washington’s Farewell Address was an important moment for the continuation of republicanism and for the inspiration of democracy within the new American country. Washington was deeply concerned by the civil-political divisions that Hamilton and Jefferson had generated within the new and fragile republic. Washington warns the American public that their independence from the European powers, safety and domestic peace were dependent on the unity between the states and the people. He said that because of this foreign power and domestic tyrants alike will incessantly and fervently work to divide the country to maintain control over it. Washington warns to be suspicious of anyone that promotes secession or sectionalism as a means to accomplish goals, for they are surely to be under the influence of a foreign power. He urges people to put their identities as Americans above their political, racial, and regional identities, place liberty and unity above all else as one. Washington cites several examples of how American unity benefits the welfare of the country and then warns against an overgrown military establish, which he regards as a threat to liberty and a path to military tyranny. Washington warns against anyone who states that the United States is too large to be ruled by one government or that any further state divisions are needed. He then offers strong warnings that the true motives of a sectionalist are to create distrust or rivalries between regions and people to gain power and take control of the government.

Washington points to two treaties acquired by his administration, Jay Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty, which established the borders of the United States’ western territories between Spanish Mexico and British Canada, and secured the rights of western farmers to ship goods along the Mississippi River to New Orleans. He holds up these treaties as proof the eastern states along the Atlantic Coast and the federal government are looking out for the welfare of all the American people and can win fair treatment from foreign countries as a united nation.” He continued on supporting the Constitution over the Articles of Confederation….“and reminds the people that although it is the right of the people to alter the government to meet their needs, it should only be done through constitutional amendments. He reinforces this belief by arguing that violent takeovers of the government should be avoided at all costs and that it is in fact the duty of every member of the republic to follow the constitution, and submit to the laws of the constitutional government until it is constitutionally amended by the majority of the American people. Washington warns the people that political factions who seek to obstruct the execution of the laws created by the government, or prevent the constitutional branches from enacting the powers provided them by the constitution may claim to be working in the interest of answering popular demands or solving pressing problems, but their true intentions are to take the power from the people and place it in the hands of unjust men. Despite Washington’s call to only change the Constitution through amendments, he warns the American people that groups seeking to overthrow the government may seek to pass constitutional amendments to weaken the government to a point where it is unable to defend itself from political factions, enforce its laws, and protect the people’s rights and property. As a result he urges them to give the government time to realize its full potential, and only amend the constitution after thorough time and thought have proven that it is truly necessary instead of simply making changes based upon opinions and hypotheses of the moment.”

Washington strongly warns against the influence of political parties and their influence on a man’s right to vote. He derides them as oligarchical special interests that do not have the interest of the republic or the common good at heart. Washington was clearly referring to the oligarchical regionalism that was promoted by Thomas Jefferson which sought to benefit the Southern Planter oligarchy and prohibit Merchant Class relations with England. Washington also advocated neutrality between France and Britain, something neither party wanted to do.

“While Washington accepts the fact that it is natural for people to organize and operate within groups like political parties, he also argues that every government has recognized political parties as an enemy and has sought to repress them because of their tendency to seek more power than other groups and take revenge on political opponents. Moreover, Washington makes the case that “the alternate domination” of one party over another and coinciding efforts to exact revenge upon their opponents have led to horrible atrocities, and “is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.” From Washington’s perspective and judgment, the tendency of political parties toward permanent despotism is because they eventually and “gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual.” Washington goes on to acknowledge the fact that parties are sometimes beneficial in promoting liberty in monarchies, but argues that political parties must be restrained in a popularly elected government because of their tendency to distract the government from their duties, create unfounded jealousies among groups and regions, raise false alarms amongst the people, promote riots and insurrection, and provide foreign nations and interests access to the government where they can impose their will upon the country.”

Washington continued on in the speech to promote the new system of Venetian Government as a means of controlling the oligarchical interests, exalting the system as being able to maintain an oligarchical balance in the interest of power. He warns against the use of force and pushes the use of amendments in changing the nature of the government, referring to the violence and terror of the French Revolution occurring at the time. Washington calls for the diffusion of knowledge to prevent an uneducated populace and calls for a maintenance in ethics and morality to ensure the prosperity of culture:

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.” – George Washington

Washington continues with declaring that public credit is a source of strength and security. He urges the preservation of credit through avoiding war, unnecessary borrowing, and paying off war debts as quickly as possible in times of peace to prevent economic decline. He also implies that the government should choose carefully how to tax to pay off debt and that some goods and services are better left untaxed, alluding to the rebellions over Federalist excise taxes. Washington once again warns of foreign nations using espionage to influence domestic events, citing good diplomatic relations as key but that only ‘real patriots would remain uninfluenced’ by the desires and recommendations of foreign governments who would seek only their own gain. Washington warns against ‘entangling alliances’ alluding to the royal families of Europe and their warlike ambitions, recommending only treaties of convenience and trade not military commitment. He defends the neutrality of the United States and states that the US ‘has the right’ to remain neutral in foreign politics. He concludes the address by asking the American peoples to forgive his sins and failures, hoping that they will pay heed to his final warnings.

As we look at America today, we must take Washington’s warnings to heart. The state of the republic reflects that of the Articles of Confederation with oligarchical tyranny and corruption of institutions being the law of the land; Washington’s desires for the people to be able to change their government has not come to pass with ease and many age old outlying problems of the republic goon without being addressed. Solutions are stifled by the Republican and Democratic parties, owned by oligarchical entities now more than they ever were, with two studies from Princeton and a French author showing that public influence over government decisions is practically non-existent. The political parties today represent the oligarchical elite of international business with hardly a landed class or a merchant class to be represented among the internationalist power elite. They manipulate the value of our currency and the cost of goods and services in order to establish class domination and rule over government, clearly just as they always have. The Middle Class of America must come to a realization that their existence is not natural, but economically and politically unique; and that in order to retain their position of society they must keep to Washington’s warnings of vigilance about the fragility of republicanism and democracy especially among the midst of oligarchical corporate predators. Consider how far we have come since the Days of the Articles of Confederation, and ask yourself sociologically what has changed? Why do we continue to pass our decision making on to oligarchical elites? When will we be prepared for direct democracy ourselves, not held hostage by the cheque  of an elite electoral college but of a true rule by the majority, by the greater interest of the people? Shouldn’t the United States be the tyranny of the majority, a class of true freedom and liberty? Or will we forever be hostages of the wealthy’s paradise, a Venetian Republic.

-The Green Chazzan

Reference List:

Cooke, Jacob Earnest. Alexander Hamilton. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1982. ISBN 0-684-17344-1.

Kohn, Richard H. (December 1972). “The Washington Administration’s Decision to Crush the Whiskey Rebellion”. The Journal of American History 59 (3): 567–584. doi:10.2307/1900658JSTOR 1900658.

Chernow, Ron (2004). Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press. p. 427. ISBN 1-59420-009-2.

Deconde, Alexander (1957). “Washington’s Farewell, the French Alliance, and the Election of 1796”. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 43 (4): 641–658. ISSN 0161-391X.

Wikisource: http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Washington%27s_Farewell_Address

Zinn, Howard (2005). A People’s History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-083865-2OCLC 61265580.

 

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Interlude: America, The Venetian Republic – Part I

Republic of Venice

Republic of Venice

America had always been somewhat modeled after the Republic of Venice. The Founding Fathers initially saw a two class society under the Articles of Confederation, with 13 states to be ruled by their own respective landed gentry and merchant class oligarchy. The Articles of Confederation system was modeled much like the Greek city-states of the ancient world with a large slave population for manual labor, an indentured servant class to manage the slave population, a freeman class for administration and merchant labor, and the oligarchical rulers themselves owners of vast swaths of land and vast swaths of people. However the uniqueness of the American Revolution in its alliance of class against a foreign monarchy and foreign gentry left a desire for freedom and culture that forced the oligarchical rulers to accept a Constitution that was modeled similarly to that of the ancient Republic of Venice. Venice itself being an oligarchical republic of cheques and balances; with a President, a Congress and a council of judges who would all be placed in constant struggle over who would rule the economic juggernaut.

American’s often forget that America was founded as a penal labor colony for England and that many white Englishmen were originally sent to the America’s to work as indentured servants or to fulfill the obligations of their criminal convictions. The first signs of a potential Middle Class, embodied with the values of God, country and freedom, emerged from the Puritan separatists that had sought religious liberty from the machinations of the Anglican and Catholic churches.

America’s history is the embodiment of class warfare; since America’s founding class struggle has emanated and ended with the United States of America. Our founding is embedded in the historical fight for freedom, the serf against the monarch, the slave against the pharaoh; American citizens from when they are born find themselves immediately fighting this struggle and they continue to do so throughout their days, bringing about their own lot to open up yet another front against the old oligarchy and the greed of aristocracy.   It is lamented upon well by many Greek scholars of old, how a republic struggles to stand between the desires of its money class and the desires for democracy from its people.

Freedom of Worship

The Puritans

The Puritans

The 13 colonies began as an overseas farming plantation for hemp, cannabis, and tobacco. In the early 1600s religious strife had wreaked havoc across Europe as the Reformation swept the continent. New interpretations of biblical law surfaced challenging the class structures of the day; the Puritans in particular demanded unlimited access to the Jewish Torah, something the Catholic Church had long forbade without strict priestly interpretation and something, James the First the King of England, was not going to simply allow without his own interpretation involved in the matter. As a result many Puritans, separatist and Calvinist-based religions fled Europe to the ‘New World’ of the 13 colonies to practice their interpretations of the bible in their daily life. Europe in their eyes had become to depraved, religion was openly mocked by the aristocracy and greed warped state institutions into a permanent societal existence of corruption that had simply crushed the faith of the peasantry.

James the First had come to fear the political power of the Puritans. The new interpretations of the Old Testament called for the abolishment of ‘inequity’ and at many times called for the death of corrupt ancient kings for bringing God’s wrath or evil, onto their lands. The religious warfare and strife was widely viewed as a consequence of God’s wrath and thus the King was for the first time in many centuries held to blame for the downfall of the kingdom. James the First however was not one to be taken as a fool; in order to secure control of the colonies in 1604 he ordered that each farmer set aside a mandatory plot of land for the production of hemp and cannabis. The order would carry out two functions: it would expand the hemp production capability necessary to stimulate a naval buildup, for England desperately needed to combat the power of the Spanish Armada and the Spanish Empire which had been at the apex of its power; and the proliferation of cannabis throughout the colonies would stave off rebellion from the growing number of Puritan colonists. James, however would make a mistake in specifying growing Cannabis Sativa in his edict, unaware of the various psychoactive suggestive properties of the ancient remedy. Exposure to Sativa would bring about revolutionary ideas on the relations between the citizen, the government and the crown.

King James I

King James I

The Puritans became a major political power within the English parliament by 1625. Charles The First, heir to the throne viewed the challenge to his powers as a monarch with contempt and further persecuted the Puritan religions using the state apparatus. John Winthrop, the first governor of Massachusetts led a large contingent of Puritan colonists to the New World to escape Charles rule. Between the 1620s and 1640s, England became very religiously oppressive with King Charles and the Church of England censoring the Bible and issuing edicts restricting religious freedom. The Puritan colonists, finding wealth from freedom in the colonies were able to send back their gains to their brethren in England to support a revolution against the crown. The English Civil War broke out in 1642 between the Royalist oligarchy and the Puritan Republican Oligarchy led by Oliver Cromwell; the Royalists were composed primarily of the landed gentry upper class and were thus required to import German mercenaries to counter Cromwell who led the lower bourgeoisie and the Puritan/Presbyterian peasantry.

Execution of Charles I

Execution of Charles I

Cromwell invented a new military concept called the New Model Army, the first non-militia based national army of its kind which allowed for greater organizational and tactical advantage over the traditional militia based regiments of the English nobility. The Army was composed of an uneasy alliance between the Presbyterian Parliamentarians and a set of semi-royalist and uneasy nobility. After several years of brutal civil war, in 1646 Cromwell drove Charles into the highlands of Scotland which followed with a two year peace of two-state Republican rule. In 1648, the King counterattacked leading to the second stage of the civil war which was largely a series of noble revolts around England as the New Model Army had been able to consolidate its grip on England. In 1649, Cromwell overthrew the monarchy of Charles I, had him tried for war crimes and executed; establishing a new Republic under the control of the English puritanical oligarchy. The return on war loans to colonial Puritan planters would enrich them beyond expectation.

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell

The English Interregnum was a period of rapid economic growth for the colonies and a time of great religious diversity for England and its protectorates. The Anglican Church was decentralized and independent church establishment was widely proliferated. The diversity of religion eventually led to political rivalries within just a few short years; parliament was dominated by the officers of the New Model Army and eventually in 1653 a permanent oligarchy was established under the officer corps, eliminating the prior parliamentarian promises of Cromwell. A pseudo parliament of the oligarchy was adopted for two more years until a military junta under Cromwell was established in 1655. Austere life was imposed upon the English citizenry to conform to the Puritan standards for social conduct; this had actually been a major goal of the revolution given that many felt England under the monarchy had descended into godlessness. Many left wing parliamentarian groups persisted after the war like the levelers and the diggers, seeking to bring about greater social equality as one of the pillars of the religious revolution.

The Puritan/Presbyterian oligarchy, following Cromwell’s death in 1859 saw a large power vacuum that was quickly being filled by a new religious bourgeoisie class that was calling for greater social equality and representation in parliamentary affairs. The oligarchy had attempted to impose one Puritan standard throughout the country but had failed to do so and thus began to believe that a restoration of the monarchy would be required to retain power. Charles the Second was restored in 1660, immediately executing 50 of the rebel leaders and imposing royal control over all aspects of government. Royal views of the colonies would never be forgiven as the purge of Puritan power throughout England commenced with the restoration of the monarchy. A series of subsequent parliamentary acts and royal decrees would restore the Anglican and royalist supporters of the monarchy and all but abolish Puritanical power from the English isles.

Issues in the thirteen colonies continued between the upper class families that believed in religious predestination and the concept of divine election versus middle and lower class families that believed in equality, judgment and divine forgiveness. Religious competition and bids by the Puritan authority to consolidate power had much to do with colonial management:

Those who created the colonies were the most fervent in their religious beliefs, and as their numbers began to decline, so did the membership of churches. The demographics of the churches changed because fewer men were joining. The resulting decrease in male religious participation was a problem for the established church (that is, the colony’s official church for which people were taxed and which they were expected to attend), since men were the ones with secular power. If the men who wielded secular power in the colony were absent from the church, its legitimacy would be undermined.”

Slavery was widely promoted by the Protestant upper class, citing that it was permitted in the Old Testament and thus not a sin against God. The Slave-Rum-Tobacco trade between Africa, the English Colonies and England came into formation during this time and formed a political and economic cartel that primarily functioned out of the Southern United States. Divides between the Northern and Southern United States would also begin in the late 1600s to early 1700s:

Puritan oppression, including torture and imprisonment of many leaders of non-Puritan Christian sects, led to the (voluntary or involuntary) “banishment” of many Christian leaders and their followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. This impact of Puritanism on many new colonists led or contributed to the founding of new colonies—Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, New Hampshire, and others—as religious havens that were created for those who wanted to live outside the oppressive reach of the existing theocracy. The power and influence of Puritan leaders in New England declined further after the Salem Witch Trials in Salem, Massachusetts, in the 1690s. Beginning as a trial of one or several self-avowed witches who admitted to practicing voodoo-type rituals with malicious intent, the trials ended with a number of innocent people being falsely accused, found guilty, and executed. “

Freedom of Speech

American Plantation

American Plantation

 

The Thirteen Colonies became the richest European entity by the early 1700s. Europe had been bankrupted by several expensive wars of religion that lasted for almost the span of a century. The Thirteen Colonies had become dominated by enterprising Puritan interests who often defied English trade laws through local smuggling. During the English currency crises that followed the Restoration of the Monarchy, Great Britain imposed stricter mercantilist policies to stem the smuggling in the Americas, but religious conflicts at home made these policies impossible to enforce. The colonies had resorted to utilizing their own local fiat currencies over the British pound, and the secondary economy had become widely accepted and very profitable as a covert means of making transactions with other nations like France and Spain.

In 1688, King James the Second was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution by an alliance between the Parliamentarians and William of Orange-Nassau, the King of Holland. This war was funded by Puritan and Calvinist groups from both the Americas and Holland. William of Orange had seized power following the end of the Eighty Year’s War and had been behind two rebellions with England following the ascent of James II to the throne just three years prior. James II began expanding military buildup to counteract William’s already large standing army coming out of the Eighty Years War; he disbanded parliament completely and passed laws allowing complete religious freedom, even for Catholics. The appointments of Catholics to high political positions immediately triggered hatred among the Protestant oligarchical elite and another parliamentarian coup plot was hatched. The birth of the King’s son as a Catholic triggered immediate call for a coup d’etat to prevent Papal control of the English throne and an alliance with France. William of Orange invaded England, defeating the English Army and displacing the House of Stuart from the throne, becoming William III of England or William the Conqueror. Anti-Catholic riots wiped out what was left of the emerging Catholic power base and English parliament was restored under its new Dutch masters.

William of Orange

William of Orange

A new Bill of Rights was created promoting more social freedoms that had ever been allowed before. Difficulties in maintaining colonial government necessitated that voting be permitted among the white male land owning class in the colonies to make general legislative decisions; this led to the foundation of independent governance in the American colonies. Land ownership was widespread and half of all men who were not slaves were eligible to vote. The Seven Years War, also known as the French and Indian War, started in 1754 brought the colonies to the peak of their prosperity, becoming both the frontline supplier and economic middleman of another war between the imperial powers. Domination by the rich southern planters in American politics had given impetus for the northern merchant class to expand their lands into the Ohio River Valley, this led to promotion of a colonial war with the French by the American aristocracy in collusion with the British military who was already leading a series of colonial conflicts against the French. The French were outnumbered and forged an alliance with the Indian tribes to fight against the British, a rivalry which has already existed since the arrival of British colonists. The American British aristocracy, which included George Washington, the largest landowner in the entire Thirteen colonies to lead failed attacks against the French Forts in the Ohio River Valley provoking a wider war. Ironically many of the leaders of the revolutionary war would lead side by side with their soon to be mortal enemies within the high command of the British military.

Seven Years War

Seven Years War

The British would continue to suffer military defeats until 1757, when the British adopted spreading smallpox into the Indian villages. The British military blockade, which was built on premium American hemp, was successful at limiting French shipments, causing the French military to rely on shady American smugglers who often double-dealed the French transports. The Treaty of Paris in 1763, ceded Eastern Canada and the territory to the Mississippi River to the British. The presence of the British military began to heavily impact colonial life as British military officers began to commandeer homes. Lands that had been sought for expansion were restricted by the crowns as “Indian Territories” and taxes and levy’s on goods and services were increased. The crown and British Parliament had become indignant towards colonial smuggling; it had proven to be a military detriment during the Seven Years War and the British intended to stamp out the problem.  It’s highly questionable as to whether or not the Founding Fathers smoked hemp, George Washington was known to have intense gum disease and false teeth from tobacco use. Hemp was however widely used as the number one cash crop in the colonial period with the Ohio River Valley and Kentucky regions being the most prosperous.

British Parliament established the first direct tax known as the Stamp Act to stem the currency problems in the colonies; this required a British stamp on all legal documents including medications like medical cannabis, contracts, mortgages, titles, newspapers and many other official items. This allowed Britain to collect the colonial currency and take it out of monetary circulation. “In 1764 the British Parliament enacted the Sugar Act and the Currency Act, further vexing the colonists. The following year, the British enacted the Quartering Acts, which required British soldiers to be quartered at the expense of residents in certain areas.” Colonists objected to this as well. The British were turning the colonies into a de facto military colony. Britain would impose the debts of the Seven Years Wars on the colonies as an excuse for the military expansion.

13 Colonies w/ Ohio Rivery Valley

13 Colonies w/ Ohio Rivery Valley

In 1765 the Sons of Liberty formed. They used public demonstrations, violence and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable. While openly hostile to what they considered an oppressive Parliament acting illegally, colonists persisted in sending numerous petitions and pleas for intervention from a monarch to whom they still claimed loyalty. The Sons of Liberty were middle class unionists and tradesmen, lawyers, and political thugs; a small minority that had come to benefit from guild like organizations that played off the competition between the industrialist and the plantation class. They would recruit members of the lower classes to brutalize, tar and feather, lynch and publically execute British tax officials to encourage colonial violence against the authorities. The colonists felt they were being punished for being British citizens and the American oligarchy did not like what they viewed as attempts by the crown to lean on their hard earned wealth. The Townshend Acts would impose tariffs on all supplies from Britain, a move of economic subjugation in the mercantilist system. Boycotts of British goods became the colonial response including a restriction on the production of hemp, a very severe detriment to the health of the British navy which had come to rely on American hemp for ships and sails.

Duties were repealed except the one on British Tea because the British East India Company needed a bailout; Britain subsidized the tea price well below the American price and this was met with hostility by the American public. The economic warfare instigated by British parliament along with the colonial violence led to events like the Boston Tea Party and various militia revolts throughout the colonies. British parliament was split between the Tory (Conservative) and Whig (Liberal) parties who were split on the issue of the colonies; the Tories wanted direct control over the colonies while the Whigs favored subordinate but independent government. Whig party leaders however were from the British military and they had interest in establishing colonial America firmly in the military interests of Britain; the Tories were led by Lord Frederick North, The Earl of Guilford. North had ridden the success of Tory influence in the victory of the Seven Years War and had good relationship with King George III. North had experience in handling colonial wars with the first Falklands War over the South American island group with Spain. North was able to obtain French allegiance in the matter and the threat of war forced Spain to retreat from the Falklands and estranged them from France.

North viewed the colonies with contempt, as a Tory he was a royalist and had come to blame the Puritans, which now represented the colonies to most Britons, for the problems of the British Empire during the period following the Eighty Years War. In response to the Tea Party and the various American rebellions, North abolished the Massachusetts government and imposed a military dictatorship under General Thomas Gage in 1774. Gage began a campaign of disarmament throughout Massachusetts, provoking an event known as the Powder Alarm when dozens of American patriots sprang into action to ambush British troops and move supplies to new locations. This would eventually lead to the Paul Revere Incident and the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

Lexington and Concord

Lexington and Concord

The final insult would come with the Quebec Act that extended Canada’s boundaries to the much desired Ohio River Valley to the oligarchy this was the last straw. The American War of Independence would begin, as American oligarchs from both the planter and merchant class aligned to separate themselves from England. They knew that the conflicts with the British military could only increase from here, they had become far wealthier than their British counterparts abroad and did not see eye to eye religiously or politically with them. They had all descended from families that had wished to establish a new world of societal and religious freedom and that chance had finally come; the economic blockades had been effective in keeping supplies balanced, winning the war was a matter of strategy and overcoming the British military experience.  They had attempted to convince the Quebecois to join them during the First Continental Congress but they had turned down the new American oligarchy. The Second Continental Congress would convene in 1775 with representative plantation and merchant oligarchs from all 13 colonies being present.

Freedom From Want

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation

 

The Articles of Confederation were the law of the land by 1777, however the period of the Articles was very different than how most Americans believe the founding of the country occurred. Many Americans believe following the revolution, the United States was an immediate democracy, but this is very far from the truth; the United States was originally established as an oligarchical republic under the rule of wealthy landlords descended from English nobility. American nationalists led by Samuel Adams would come to reject the Articles of Confederation as a period of oligarchical tyranny and unrest. The oligarchy had intended to formalize an administration over the inter-colonial currency system Benjamin Franklin had created. Governmental developments occurred throughout the revolutionary war and to look at the politics of the provisional government of the Second Continental Congress is key to understanding the ideologies of the upper class during this period.

The idea behind the Second Continental Congress was to form an independent government and coordinate the rebellion that had broken out at Lexington and Concord. The Continental Army was formed under the leadership of George Washington, financing from France and Holland would be provided by John Hanson, a landowner almost equal in wealth and influence to Washington. They began issuing paper money called Continentals to counter the influence of British currency and counterfeiting in the colonies. The Declaration of Independence was passed, along with the Model Treaty, a free trade agreement and the Articles of Confederation which created an oligarchical, Republic of states with a highly decentralized government composed of the reigning landed gentry. Foreign policy from the central government was impossible and state governments began to establish their own trade policies and foreign policies to suit the needs of their local oligarchies. The Second Continental Congress was highly criticized for its inability to impose taxes for military spending and were thus unable to recollect dispersed continentals to stave off inflation from over-circulation. However the Northwest Ordinance which was to establish American dominion over the Ohio River Valley was accomplished and the interests of the American oligarchy to take over the farming prospects of that area had been accomplished.

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

The mistaken perception is that many of the American oligarchs wanted the government to work during the war, this couldn’t be farther from the truth. Oligarchical interests were split into three camps that competed and sabotaged processes in the interests of power. The first camp sought an independent set of nation-states based on the 13 colonies, each would be governed by its own oligarchical collective that would have a shared military interest but independent economies that would trade amongst each other favorably to retain economic advantage over Europe, who had come to depend on the colonies for trade. Another aspect of this group were the nationalists, who were primarily nobles who were military officers, who felt that their risk for independence was not only a religious duty but an ‘all or nothing’ task. The first group primarily consisted of the Northern landowners who were heavily vested in manufacturing, the middle class and small domestic plantations. The second camp sought to make war against Britain to vie for an autonomous state within the British Commonwealth that would remain in the British Empire but have nearly autonomous economic freedom and be under the rule of the landed gentry that was tied to the British aristocracy. The second group consisted of large noble landowners who feared threats to their property rights from both British parliament and the merchant class, they were largely southern planters and large Northern plantation owners. The third camp sought to ride the fence and manipulate both sides to ensure the most favorable outcomes to both their lands and loans.

The new government was highly decentralized and allowed state oligarchs to retain the most amount of power as possible. Society was stratified among the white male landowners, white merchants, white laborers and farmers, indentured servants and slaves. Taxes were not allowed to be collected and the oligarchs were content as such, believing that their position in the New World gave them strategic advantages unshared by anyone else in the world and that the civilian militias would be sufficient in repelling Indian and foreign attacks. They also believed in having a manipulative foreign policy with states having the ability to make and break treaties on their own, even at the expense of other states. The Continental Congress was supposed to retain the domain of foreign policy, but this was hardly honored by the ambitious local oligarchs who sought to use treaties to improve their financial standing.

The states themselves were viewed almost like competing oligarchical corporations operating under one confederation. They each retained their own laws, legal courts and jurisdictions that were maintained by the local oligarchs; so called ‘freemen’, which came from the English term for a man who was not bound by debt, servitude or enslavement were permitted to openly travel between the colonies and received equal treatment within each state; people considered ‘paupers, vagabonds and fugitives’ were not permitted freedom of movement and became a discriminated class, not sharing the same rights as the freemen. It was essentially a society drawn upon rigid class distinctions, much like the Republic of Venice and Greek city-states like Athens and Sparta, where being poor had been practically outlawed. The Articles outlined the collection of monies through a property tax but the sovereignty of the states allowed them to nullify the tax, disproportionate currency allotments and inter-state debts also created economic friction between the states.

In order to better control civil order, the position called The President of the Congress was enhanced, borrowing from the idea of a position in the Republic of Venice known as the ‘Doge’, with President’s only being allowed to serve one year terms. The Republic of Venice was a model for much of the American government, drawing from their congressional system known as the Gran Consiglio which was a congressional body of competing oligarchical factions; a rigorous anonymous voting process would occur to pick a member of the Consiglio to become the Doge or President and they would have the ability to administer the government and make military decisions. The Doge was almost always in constant state of political struggle against rival factions seeking to trump each other’s power within the Gran Consiglio, America’s government would be no different.

The President would be elected by the oligarchical representatives of the Second Continental Congress to make administrative decisions and settle disputes between the states; the President would also be responsible for collaborating the military generals to oversee the administrative affairs of the military. Prior to this, the position had been a congressional ceremonial role that was largely administered by John Hancock and John Jay in the First Continental Congress. The first President was Samuel Huntington who had been elected for his effective oratory and meeting skills. He regarded his position as highly ceremonial at first but soon realized the impending crisis between the cost of war debts and the increasing currency crisis that was being created between the colonies. He struggled between 1779 and 1781 to not only get the colonies to ratify the Articles but to also pay taxes and war debts to keep fighting Great Britain. Ill health forced him out of office in mid-1781 to be temporarily replaced by the lawyer Thomas MacKean who oversaw the office until the end of the Revolutionary war hostilities later that year.

John Hanson

John Hanson

Ratification of the laws would occur from 1777 to 1781, with Maryland holding out under the influence of the very powerful John Hansen who had been responsible for much of the financing of the war. Hansen was the second richest man in the colonies and controlled the decisions of the Maryland House of Delegates, its colonial government; he had competed intensely with his rival John Hancock for power within the new government. Hancock had influence within the American military for financing the armaments of the minutemen and his wealth nearly rivaled that of both Hansen and George Washington. The Continental Congress had struggled to govern and the inflation crises generated by the Revolutionary War and the lack of tax collection called for restructuring of the government. This could not be accomplished until all states had ratified the Articles of Confederation. Hansen desiring a position of power within the federal establishment bargained the President of the Congress in exchange for Maryland’s signature barring John Hancock’s ambitions for the position post-war. Hanson would dominate Congress for the following year, implementing his vision of what the Articles of Confederation meant, being a rigid oligarchical society largely built on the economy of slavery. His close relationship with George Washington was effective in spreading his influence and they often worked together politically to reach post-war goals. Hansen was known for his harsh attitude towards slaves, with slave escape attempts from his own plantation occurring even during his presidency.

Hansen’s economic policies from 1781 to the end of 1784 were exceedingly brutal for the American people. The anti-tax stance of the American oligarchy, not wanting to part with silver & gold specie payments to foreign creditors, led to decisions by the Continental Congress to allow the Continental currency to effectively devalue and default. Hansen allowed oligarchical debt to be consolidated with the national debt to stimulate competitive devaluation which led to a period of sharp food and goods inflation. The lower and middle classes, who had primarily used the continental as a means of commerce through the war suddenly found themselves with a valueless currency amidst a sharp increase in the cost of living expenses. Oligarchical entities continued their lives untouched by the economic chaos as their debts were being guilefully transferred to the state and they were able to make payments with traditional hard currency. Hansen and his influenced predecessors Boudinot and Mifflin would continue these policies by implementing austerity on the federal government as inflation increased and tax receipts continued to decline; Hansen did not believe these policies would come to affect ‘Freemen’.

At the end of his term Hansen and Washington chose Elias Boudinot, a lawyer and banker from New Jersey to succeed Hansen. Military engagement with the British had ended prior to Hansen’s term at Yorktown but the war continued on as France. America’s ally in the war, engaged in full conflict with England. Boudinot would work with the British to end the blockade and create preliminary agreements to the Treaty of Paris, his successor Thomas Mifflin would sign the Treaty the following year in 1783 but only after great difficulty in getting all of the states to ratify it.

Richard Henry Lee

Richard Henry Lee

Richard Henry Lee, a colonial aristocrat would take over the position in late 1784; his position in society was much higher and he was able to govern more independently without sponsors. Lee would attempt to resolve the economic crisis that afflicted post-war America; he tried to resolve the currency crisis by pegging the Dollar to the Spanish Dollar of the Spanish Empire. By the time Lee took office, the Continental currency had collapsed and had to be replaced by the US dollar which Lee argued could no longer be backed by collapsing public credit. Oligarchs were unwilling to adopt central banking initiatives which called for a backing by gold and silver specie. Lee negotiated the end of the British blockade and restored the American trade system to bring in more foreign currency.

Lee also denied claims by states to the Ohio River Valley, a highly contentious issue among the state American oligarchies seeking westward expansion; instead Lee claimed the land to be property of the government to be sold back to the oligarchy in a bid to reduce war debts. Lee argued the land grab was necessity because the United States had reached the limit of its foreign credit and he, like many of the oligarchs, refused to implement taxes. Lee, however found it difficult to enforce the new land ordinances without a large standing police force or frontier military to fight Indian raids and enforce laws. The economy continued to deteriorate due to foreign and domestic economic conditions despite the currency pegging agreements; mercantilist policies of both the Spanish and English empires led to price manipulation and a cabal of oligarch’s which included Lee himself used the power of Congress to transfer their own trade debts onto the state. They also nullified interstate debts using their position which led to increased financial friction and rivalry within the Union.

John Hancock

John Hancock

Domestic unrest began to intensify during Lee’s reign over opposition to the abuse of Congress and the oligarchy. The economic disparity between rich and poor had reached an unbearable state within just a few years of America’s infancy and fractured the class alliances which had formed the backbone of the American military during the Revolutionary War. John Hancock, a nationalist who had entertained a strong patriotic reputation along with George Washington, was brought in to be President of the Congress to attempt to resolve the deteriorating situation in the middle of 1775. Hancock, however, had come to resent the Congressional body as an oligarchical dictatorship and declined to attend despite his position due to excuses of ill health and political unrest. Hancock’s subtle but open disdain for the Congress led to organizations of groups that had come from nationalist factions of the government to overthrow the perceived oligarchical threat to their freedom. Following Hancock’s resignation, the President of Congress was assumed by Nathaniel Gorman in the summer of 1786, a member of the Massachusetts elite with close ties to the past regimes. During the same summer, currency pressures would intensify as a shortage of hard currency would prompt a bout of severe deflation, economic depression and heavy handed policies of domestic austerity by oligarchical governments of the states.

In Massachusetts, a large majority of the population were farmers and the deflation had forced them to sell their lands in order to raise money to buy goods and pay debts. The oligarchy used specie to buy these lands at cut rate prices and the currency manipulation became widely viewed as an attempt by the merchant oligarchy, who thrived on the import/export business, to conduct a land grab.  Also foreign debtors became wise to the attempts at competitive devaluation and demanded payment of debts in hard currency, new issuance of credit would not be permitted unless debts would be settled this way going forward creating an economic problem for the merchant class.

Despite the continent-wide shortage of hard currency, merchants began to demand the same from their local business partners, including those merchants operating in the market towns in the state’s interior. Many of these merchants passed on this demand to their customers, although the popular governor, John Hancock, did not impose hard currency demands on poorer borrowers and refused to actively prosecute the collection of delinquent taxes.”

Hancock viewed this problem as self-created by the merchant class for adopting economic policies that punished and ostracized the poor as well as refusing to make good on the merchant classes debts. After resigning his position in the Continental Congress he refused to take on another government position citing government and merchant class corruption; he was already engaged in a rivalry with the landed oligarchy, especially an ally of Richard Henry Lee, James Bowdoin, who had competed on behalf of the merchant class against Hancock for the governorship of Massachusetts.

Gov. James Bowdoin

Gov. James Bowdoin

New tensions also arose between the northern and southern states, as the Southern planters who depended on the value of food prices saw their profits crushed by the deflation and that the Northern merchants were beginning to dominate economic decision making via their access to foreign currency through trade.

The rural farming population was generally unable to meet the demands being made of them by merchants or the civil authorities, and individuals began to lose their land and other possessions when they were unable to fulfill their debt and tax obligations. This led to strong resentments against tax collectors and the courts, where creditors obtained and enforced judgments against debtors, and where tax collectors obtained judgments authorizing property seizures”.

Historian Howard Zinn quoted a farmer from that period as stating:

I have been greatly abused, have been obliged to do more than my part in the war, been loaded with class rates, town rates, province rates, Continental rates and all rates … been pulled and hauled by sheriffs, constables and collectors, and had my cattle sold for less than they were worth … The great men are going to get all we have and I think it is time for us to rise and put a stop to it, and have no more courts, nor sheriffs, nor collectors nor lawyers.”

Part 2: https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/04/27/interlude-america-the-venetian-republic-part-2/

The Green Chazzan 

 

Sources:

Murrin, John M. (2008). Liberty, Equality, Power, A History of the American People: To 1877. Wadsworth Publishing Company. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-111-83086-1.

Jensen, Merrill (1959). The Articles of Confederation. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-299-00204-6.

Ketcham, Ralph (1990). Roots of the Republic: American Founding Documents Interpreted. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-945612-19-3.

Burnett, Edward Cody (1941). The Continental Congress. New York: Norton.

Fowler, William M., Jr. (1980). The Baron of Beacon Hill: A Biography of John Hancock. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-27619-5.

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Narc vs. Narc: The Origins of the Modern Medical Marijuana Movement

The Origins of the Modern Medical Marihuana Movement

Ok, so I’m totally screwed for telling you all this story; the Chazzan here, guilted me into it over Easter and I figure hey, World War III is probably going to break out this year so what the hell, why not? This is the story about the mysterious truth of the medical marihuana movement; I’m doing this for my friends, in honor of them and their commitment to us all so nothing is in vain.  

The true stories behind the modern medical marihuana movement have been shrouded in a cloud of haze, like a decades long 420 session that never ended with mysterious characters, hippies, smugglers, presidents and secret agents all walking about through the pleroma of chronic. In my honest opinion, we will never really know the truth as to why the hippies started smuggling marihuana seeds into the US in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but here is the story as far as I know.

It’s funny how things happen, something just never comes from nothing in this world. Everything has a beginning and an end, one way or another. I don’t know why it had all had to happen, millions dead, billions made; it’s not sane but war never is.  Maybe it’s about money, maybe its power, fortune and fame; for a select few it was about love and compassion, but in the end it ended up being about greed.

Vietnam

Vietnam made it easy to ship drugs from Asia to the United States, Mexico and South America. The US was always the final destination of course, but it was a new market and a new dawn for the American conservative power elite. Finally they would get the chance to play games with their own people just like the crown of England, by importing the rarities of Asia through the flag laden caskets of the Vietnam War dead. The Jedbergh Team were some of the best trained commandos the United States had to offer, originally trained for special forces suicide missions in World War 2, Vietnam was fresh meat on the table compared to what they had become accustomed to. The French had been using Indochina for opium production for years, but had become unable to maintain their colonial empire after the end of World War 2; the French OAS had worked with the Jedbergh teams to ship opium into Nazi Germany during the war and agreed to cut a deal with them to take over the OAS’ operations in exchange for autonomy to operate in the African diamond regions.

Golden Triangle

Golden Triangle

Indochina was divided into three parts, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia; the best opium came from Laos and parts of Northern Burma so it was imperative that a corridor be made available through Vietnam in order to open up the west coast of North America for drug imports. However one problem stood in the way, Ho Chi Minh and the communists of North Vietnam, who derided the opium trade as a tool of imperial oppression. The rejections of attempts to make peace with the United States told Minh that the US intelligence agencies intended to reestablish the French opium corridor at their expense, with the help of the Italian Mob, which included turning the entire country of Vietnam into an Asian client of the US, as had been demonstrated under Ngo Dien Diem in South Vietnam.

The Consortium

The Black Hand

The Black Hand

The Consortium, which is what the Chazzan has called the Opium Mob, are the movers and shakers of the drug world. The Consortium is made up of the Big 5 interests or the Black Hand: Big Pharma aka The Opium Mob, the Drug Cartels, Tobacco, Alcohal and the Oil/Chemical Industry. The large shareholders and owners of many of the largest industries in these sectors form a group of interests that have controlled large portions of the drug trade for over a century. Like the Chazzan pointed out, they have an entrenched interest in the Republican Party and the Democrats to some extent, going back 100 years to the Robber Barons of old.  They are the Consortium, the Anglo-American Opium Cartel and one of the most powerful political forces on the planet today.

The Consortium had been laid low by the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his New Deal, but it experienced a resurgence through the establishment of the National Security Act of 1947. The Russell Trust Association, which the Chazzan talked about, originated from the Anglo-American Opium fortune of William Huntington Russell and it owns the Skull and Bones Fraternity where the first agents of the Central Intelligence Agency were recruited from. The interests of this business saw their rebirth by placing loyal interests within the agency who would steer agency policy to aid their international cartel. The Consortium also had ready distributors in the American Mob, Naval Intelligence had worked extensively with the mob to sabotage the regime of Benito Mussolini through the OSS and many of those relationships persisted among the OSS officers who continued on to work with the CIA.

Skull and Bones

Skull and Bones

The Consortium and the conservative Eastern moneyed class had felt utterly defeated under the New Deal reforms, which had created something never seen before, a Middle Class. FDR empowered the people to be able to have access to jobs, education, as well as economic opportunity and following World War 2, the expansion of industrial production turned these attributes into purchasing power. The right wing extremism of McCarthyism drove people away from the anti-communist/hypernationalist rhetoric that the moneyed class had used to enthrall the people since the 20s. New left wing ideals emerged regarding healthcare, welfare, race, and poverty, represented in the movements of Martin Luther King, the Hippies, and so many others that finally began to question the structure of class and power in the United States.

California was the test tube for a lot of these new ideas; it had been heavily militarized during World War 2 and the transfer of military assets had brought a new economy to California. The Jedbergh trade from Vietnam also reintroduced the use of narcotics into popular culture in California as well. The Eisenhower administration didn’t think much of it at first, especially VP Richard Nixon; he figured the heroin was only being used by blacks and Mexicans and that use wouldn’t go any farther than it had in the 1950s. He was wrong, the Opium Mob, who had embedded itself in the defense industry and in the intelligence community as well, fully intended to recreate what they felt had been stolen from them; an international opium trade.

JFK

Joh Kennedy

JFK

John F. Kennedy was a good man, he had grown up privileged but his father gave him a mature outlook on the mafia world he had known as a youth. His father and his experiences fighting in World War 2, proved to Jack Kennedy that the America his father had lived in could not last; the US deserved more democracy and less republicanism, more freedom less oligarchy, more opportunity less subjugation and Jack Kennedy knew his history. He knew that the racial views of the past had been responsible for two world wars. The beliefs of eugenics, of survival of the fittest, of race and class had created the first Great War cataclysm and the apocalypse that followed with the rise and fall of Adolf Hitler, who had represented the evolution of an evil steeped in Anglo-American aristocratic tradition. He knew that all of this had to end, and that he had to protect the Middle Class that had been created from the dreams of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt.

JFK knew that by the mid-1950s that opium addiction was not limited by its race and that the opium trade targeted the lower and middle classes; he was also aware through his father that cannabis had been effective at combating the effects of the opium poppy in the plants. Secretly, the president and his brother Robert, commissioned a group of trained hippies to start distributing cannabis across the country as an experiment in curing the spread of opium addiction, and it was effective. Interest in cannabis skyrocketed over the interest of opium and cocaine, addiction rates dropped and people’s cultural anxiety began to slip away into the various interests and cultures of the 60s. At the same time JFK began to defund projects of the Bureau of Narcotics, a long time collaborative agency of the heroin trade by force retiring Anslinger and reallocating their budgets to FBI and DOJ investigations.

Robert Kennedy knew their arch enemy was the Consortium who had begun to align their power behind the characters of Barry Goldwater and Richard Nixon to create a radical right wing opposition to the policies of the president. In their view the government had become not one but two entities within one institution, the Republicans had come under the financial control of the Big 5, the five factions of lobbying groups that had aligned to preserve their financial and industrial interests and held immeasurable influence within the GOP since the death of Lincoln. These interests were very old industries worth billions of dollars that have held a historically incredible amount of political influence and decision making for over half the countries age.

The Consortium

The Consortium

Many will be quick to blame the banks, but one had to remember that the Big 5 already diversified into banking during the 20s and had enough assets to leverage whatever political endeavor they had wanted; one of these banks is well known as Browns Brothers Harriman for its Harriman Railroad, Walker Family and Bush Family stewardships. They were all under threat in the 60’s by the emergence of marihuana in popular culture; marihuana was cheap, it got people off of heroin and reduced alcoholism, hippies made clothes out of hemp, pushed hemp products, people started using alternative medication and marihuana as a medicine instead of prescription pills, and everyone suddenly began to question these industries abuse of both the people and the environment. Marihuana countered the power of the establishment in a way that they had not expected and unfortunately in ended in tears with the assassinations of several of the left wing leaders.

The conservative upper class establishment had felt utterly threatened by JFK, he had empowerment by the Middle Class and held mass favorability among the people. He had prevented them from pursing war with the Soviet Union, he protected MLK’s movement and advocated an end to the racial class distinction; more importantly he had ruined their ability, along with the mobs, to recover their tax haven monies and gold stored in Havana. That money was confiscated by Castro to pay for 50 years’ worth of Communism. The Consortium had stored much of their ill-gotten heroin gains from the 1950’s there and it had all but vanished with the success of Castro’s Revolution. They used their power within the intelligence community, in a group known as Operation J/M-Wave, which had been led by many of former Jedbergher’s, to push for war with Cuba but JFK had successfully thwarted them with botched intelligence operations and skilled diplomacy.

Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro

The Big 5 decided it was too much when JFK threatened to end the Gold Standard by reintroducing bimetallism as a way to control war inflation from Vietnam and began to announce intentions for draw downs in military operations in Vietnam. This would cripple the plans of the international opium trade that relied on gold payments to function; JFK knew that the gold was being shipped abroad through the war inflation and the drug trade, effectively leading to the bankruptcy and subjugation of the United States. He would, along with MLK and Malcolm X, in short order be assassinated; ripping the heart of the American social fabric apart as the Middle Class saw to what ends the establishment was willing to go to retain control.

Crisis

LBJ found himself caught up in something that he had not really expected; the Big 5 had effectively staged a coup along with certain members of the intelligence and narcotics agencies that were under their influence. He was well aware of what had been going on in Vietnam, and he did not want to be the next dead President; he responded to the rage of the working classes over the death of their leaders by passing the Civil Rights Act, which in turn enabled him to defeat Barry Goldwater in the upcoming election. The Barry Goldwater defeat was taken with great shame among the wealthy conservative establishment; they felt that their time was truly coming to an end, unless radical changes were to take place to stop the rise of the Middle Class and the democratization of the country. The country had rejected the ultra-nationalist racial-religious rhetoric that they had used to dominate the nations psyche for the last 50 years; the country had rejected continuing the war in Vietnam, knowing that their own were dying in a war for the wealth’s profit, for an empty “us vs. them” rhetoric that had nothing but greed at its heart.

Barry Goldwater

Barry Goldwater

LBJ’s shared guilt in JFK’s assassination made it impossible for him to stand against Robert Kennedy, who now eyed the presidency with a vengeance for the 1968 general election against the tool of the Big 5 and the Defense Industry, Richard Nixon. The American people’s disillusionment under LBJ over the war in Vietnam was understandable but Nixon’s promises to end the war was nothing but smoke and mirrors as he represented the largest and more aggressive benefactors of the war. LBJ was fully aware of his mortality in his position as President, and took measures using Kennedy sympathetic agents within the FBI and CIA to start investigating the activities of the Bureau of Narcotics (BNDD), whom he had suspected were working with the Chinese government through the Laotian government to back Nixon. He gambled that maybe he could dismantle the conservatives grip on government money power if he continued JFK’s tactics but more covertly instead of openly. He also knew of Nixon’s deep ties to the mob, through his pal Bebe Rebozo who had been a smuggler with Meyer Lansky during World War 2.

The War on Drugs is the brainchild of Barry Goldwater, he called it ‘the second segregation’ with great pride as he knew that this form of segregation would transcend both race and class and target what the upper class had deemed as ‘lower forms’ ideologically for several decades. The Consortium was quick to back the idea, familiar with controlling markets through drug control, they saw a golden opportunity to reform large institutions as they saw fit. Richard Nixon would be the man to carry out this mission after Goldwater’s failure, he was an insane man but had buttons that could be pushed which allowed him to be managed. He would play on the apprehensions and disaffections of the Middle class, by presenting a new form of Republicanism that was more moderate than years past but still able to conjure the prejudices of the South.

Nixon Rally

Nixon Rally

The Republicans were able to depose of LBJ in 1968 by using the Southern Strategy to market the Democrats as traitors to the racial-religious values that the South had seemingly redeemed itself through since the Civil War. They promised a return to racial classism and the end of the hippies through ‘law and order’. This didn’t come naturally or organically however; the Bureau of Narcotics, agents of the Big 5 in their own right, had been issued to create a counterweight to the emerging left wing counter culture that had resulted in the resounding defeat of Barry Goldwater. Their mission was to brutally enforce the marihuana trade and take control of it, while at the same time clearing the path for opium and other government made drugs like LSD. Robert Kennedy’s assassination cleared the way for any opposition left for Nixon; the social situation had been turned upside down and the Watts riots spread fear and terror throughout the country.

Vang Pao

Vang Pao

Nixon’s ascension to the Presidency was the beginning of the American Narco state as we know it today. The Bureau of Narcotics formerly took Santo Trafficante, the Mobs representative out of Florida, to the jungles of Laos to meet General Vang Pao. Mussolini’s reign had badly damaged the Sicilian opium trade out of Turkey, and the power of that trade had been transferred to the Corsican Mob (The French Connection) which extracted a high tariff on American heroin imports. Asian white heroin was better than Turkish heroin and easier to refine of which the mob approved; Nixon promised to redirect US law enforcement against the Corsicans while allowing the American Mob to set up operations in Asia, Mexico and the US. The Mob would be allowed exclusive control over the drug trade with the ability to control prices, drug control laws would be passed to exempt Big Pharma, cigarettes and tobacco would be the only legal form of vice, and Nixon would pass a crime control act and drug war laws that would allow for the criminalization of minorities and the working poor. The second segregation would be achieved and all parties would be enriched for it.  The Mob would back Nixon’s bid for the presidency along with the Big 5 and assist the Republicans in the process of rigging the polls.

Nixon and the DEA

Nixon

Nixon

Nixon brought about the end of 40 years of economic liberalization and democratization in the United State. He filled his office with Big 5 cronies, all who had been carefully crafted and selected to manage Nixon to perform their bidding. Nixon’s aides Egil Krogh and E. Howard Hunt established the Office of National Narcotics Intelligence or ONNI. Hunt staffed the agencies with members of the Jedbergh teams that had worked with the intelligence agencies and the BNDD to move heroin out of Vietnam; empowering former OSS officer Lucien Conein to centralize the foreign operations. G. Gordon Liddy, another Big 5 operator would create Office for Drug Abuse Law Enforcement or ODALE to coordinate the domestic activities of the operation. Nixon then ‘burned’ (or disavowed) all of JFK’s marihuana agents with the execution of Operation Intercept; the Mexican border was sealed and all narcotics agents that had been carrying on JFK’s mission found themselves without an identity and identified as outlaws by their own country under Nixon’s new drug regime. The new US narcs proceeded to wipe out the Corsican’s French Connection, while in Vietnam pot sniffing dogs ran marihuana out of the barracks while heroin from Laos became plentiful from Special Ops missions.

The CIA, DEA, BNDD and ONNI agencies would also extend their influence into South America, recruiting former German intelligence operatives through Consortium WWII relationships to overthrow democratic regimes throughout South America and install fascist military dictatorships starting with Argentina and working their way up through Central America. The idea was to use this new ‘School of Americas’ dismantle any international competitors to the opium trade and to also seize control and develop the cocaine trade. Civil opposition was held down by government dirty wars against communists and socialists that killed millions of people. All governments would be puppets and clients of the US narcostate, ensuring that drug flows of cocaine would run smoothly northward to the United States. The purpose of preparing these routes was a long term strategy for the international drug consortium, they knew the Vietnam War could be not be continued for much longer and that when the war ended the price of heroin would go up and demand would fall eventually.

DEA

DEA

After 1971 and the passage of the Controlled Substances Act and the consolidation of the drug agencies under the DEA, all-out war broke out within the narcotics intelligence community. The CIA and the Kennedy loyalists within the BNDD watched as the Republican upstart agencies controlled by the Consortium: BNDD, ODALE, ONNI and Customs Intelligence, were merged into the DEA.  The burned members of JFK’s marihuana unit had resorted to engaging in a smuggling war throughout Mexico and South America; they trained Mexican smuggler Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo with the Mexican government and socialist organizations to manufacture and smuggle marihuana into the United States with the sanction of CIA director Richard Helms who had come to view the drug consortium as detrimental to US national security. Gallardo would later go on to become the leader of the Guadalajara Cartel, Mexico’s first and largest drug cartel.

On the other hand, E. Howard Hunt and Col. Lucien Conein, the DEA founders, had been training fascist death squads all over the world to crush socialism including Italy’s P2 Lodge, Juan Peron and Jose Lopez Rega of Argentina, Pinochet of Chile and many others. They used the CIA’s Cuban assets from Operation J/M-Wave, who had participated in the Bay of Pigs, to train Spanish speaking death squads all over Latin America. The original DEA teams consisted of 50 disloyal CIA agents, the Cuban assets, 500 customs agents and the reliable teams G. Gordon Liddy had handpicked for ODALE. Helms had found himself engaged in a covert war against the DEA led by Conein and Hunt; their operators were infiltrating his Latin American intelligence groups and turning agents over to their control. These agents in turn were carrying out assassinations of CIA assets and democratic leaders in the name of the agency. By 1974, the DEA had almost completely taken over the CIA’s Latin American apparatus and were leading a reign of terror across the South American continent.

Col. Conein

Col. Conein

Watergate

Nixon however faced a dilemma, the narcostate inherently functioned as an economic vacuum removing dollars and wealth from the real economy through illegal drug sales. The Consortium and their intelligence collaborators were using an intricate system of international finance to take the money from the drug sales and ship it out of country where it could be deposited in corrupt foreign banks, then the money could be transferred to Opium Mob owned banks in London where it could be used to buy US gold. Nixon could not maintain the opium corridor without performing adjustments to the US militaries position in Vietnam but he could not continue the war without increasing gold payments that would lead to the bankruptcy and economic collapse of the US much like what had happened because of alcohol prohibition in the late 1920s. Nixon decided that he would abandon the Gold Standard and adopt a fiat dollar that was backed by the credit of the US; the creditors would be England, France, Japan, Saudi Arabia and most importantly China. Nixon reorganized the economy by imposing artificial price controls in the name of staving off the ensuring war inflation that came with leaving the gold standard.

Nixon Cabinet

Nixon Cabinet

The idea to implement the fiat currency was actually Kissinger’s. Kissinger calculated that US drug sales would increase dollar exports and in turn increase US diplomatic influence by easing the terms of dollar-currency payments thus making the dollar more liquid and easier to use for transactions in foreign countries. This would increase dollar demand in the third world, which China saw as a way to bring in investment income to start building the Chinese economy and the US saw as an almost limitless credit card, as dollar demand expanded so would demand for US credit and bonds by the nations of the world. The wealthy would be able to expand their own financial power through fiat inflation.

Other members of the Eastern Establishment, however, did not like Nixon’s ties to the Chinese and the Italian Mob, they viewed the Cosa Nostra as an upstart elite organization compared to the other traditional big business powers and they feared the intentions of the Chinese despite the financial benefits of outsourcing to China to counter union power. Even the Consortium who had arranged for Nixon’s rise became despondent because the Italians were muscling in on even the Anglo-American markets. Nixon had also become unhappy with the influence of the Consortium in his presidency, he felt like he had lost control of the narcotics agencies that had done his dirty work, that the Kissinger clique had usurped his authority and he had not forgotten what had happened to the two presidents before him. Ford, he knew, was a contingency plan in case Nixon decided to go off the reservation or too far out of Kissinger’s influence. The Ford family has close ties to the Big 5 from their financial alliance to back Hitler in the 30s and was a perfect representative for the interests of the 60 families of the old oligarchy in the event of Nixon’s demise.

G Gordan Liddy

G Gordan Liddy

The Watergate Scandal had been carefully crafted by the Consortium to trick the entire Eastern Establishment into deposing the power of the Executive presidency. Nixon had become the most powerful president since FDR to hold office and had expanded government power in such a reckless manner that they had come to believe that they would soon be a target of his repressive programs. Members of his cabinet loyal to the Big 5 interests were the primary perpetrators of the Watergate break-in but the purpose was not so much as to ensure a Democratic defeat but to ensure the fall of the President himself. The Consortium had already removed several US presidents throughout history and just because Nixon was their man didn’t make him an exception to the rule, ultimately he was an outsider to them and Ford could be trusted to finish the economic and social transitions they had wanted. They were also threatened by how efficient the Nixonian narcotics agencies had been in establishing dominance over the world’s narcotics markets. The Lopez-Rega AAA death squad and Pinochet controlled cocaine, Gallardo controlled marihuana and cocaine, the Mob controlled heroin and the DEA controlled the distribution of synthetic drugs. Nixon in effect could use his power over these agencies to exert financial pressure on his own handlers if he so chose. When the scandal broke in 1973, Helms was deposed along with Nixon and any other White House staff considered too close to Nixon including E. Howard Hunt.

The Neo-Cons

Neo-Cons

Neo-Cons

“The Great Heroin Coup” as it became known in hippie circles had been accomplished. The Watergate Scandal as a national nightmare and embarrassment; the power of the presidency immediately declined as suspicions of dictatorial initiatives hounded the media waves throughout the country. Congress would reassert its power now, which was exactly what the American oligarchy had desired since the reign of FDR 40 years prior. With a weak President the interests of the middle class and reform measures against their power did not have chance against their congressional blocs and influenced courts. Ford brought in the Neo-Conservatives, the political front men and masterminds of the Anglo-American Opium Mob, for the first time to take over the government since the 1920s. Donald Rumsfeld, Dick Cheney, Paul Wolfowitz, Nelson Rockefeller, Casper Weinberger and many other notorious names were brought in to join Kissinger and guide Ford’s transition presidency.

The Drug Consortium of Neo-Conservatives (The Consortium), who also represented the ownership stakes of the Big 5, took over stewardship of the United States and sought immediately to make war against the Middle Class to restore Establishment power, reestablish racial-class divides, destroy the left movement and the labor movement and extend their control throughout the world. The Opium Mob was back in power and stronger than it had ever been. The Consortium proceeded to terminate the Italian Mafia’s usefulness by creating drug rivalries among the Italian families using their control over the regulatory agencies; this was done through the complete annihilation of the European opium trade through deception. The Consortium had decided to switch their focus to Cocaine, it was more profitable than and just as addictive as heroin, and they didn’t have to rely on Italian underworld connections anymore if heroin wasn’t big on the street.

The DEA under the guidance of Mitch Werbell, would adulterate the Asian opium in Mexico into black tar heroin to lower the overall quality of the street product to push users toward Cocaine. Werbell, a former Jedbergh agent himself worked with fellow Jedbergh officer Major General John Singlaub to form commando teams that could train Central American guerillas to improve the cocaine networks, this organization would later be known as one of the Iran-Contra Death Squads called the World Anti-Communist League. This organization would pioneer the guns-for-weapons trade that has now become an international sub-enterprise of the global narcotics trade. They would use music and Hollywood front men to promote the distribution of Cocaine in major urban centers. Marihuana and discrediting the Left Wing movements were to be the number one domestic targets of the narcotics agencies under the Consortium’s control. The CIA would also be subjugated to the will of the Consortium with the appointment of Bill Colby, a Phoenix Project loyalist

Gen. John Singlaub

Gen. John Singlaub

Discrediting the Left Movement through psychological terrorism and drug use was the key focus of the DEA during the late 1970s. LSD was used as a brainwashing tool to create terror cults like Jonestown/Peoples Temple, the Manson Family, the Moonies and other messianic cult groups that used LSD heavily to indoctrinate members. Murders surrounding these groups spread terror throughout the American populace, and Evangelical groups that held old alliances with the Consortium  from prohibition days were empowered to guide the American populace like a malicious Shepard guiding his sheep toward the loving slaughterhouse of conservative government. The left movement and the Democratic Party had been largely infiltrated by DEA saboteurs as well, creating Left Wing extremist organizations like the SLA, and factions of the YIppie and Zippie movements to discredit all aspects of the Hippie ideal through acts of terrorism. Right Wing counter reformists like Lyndon LaRouche used the US Labor Party and the National Caucus of Labor Committees to steer unions toward more right wing points of view and away from criticism of drug policy. LaRouche would ironically be later indicted by the same individuals that empowered him in the late 80s.

Carter

Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter

However, despite these cultural terrors the American people hated Ford and his Vice President Rockefeller; it was clear they were oligarchical candidates and they shared the taint of Nixon’s villainy even though he had become their political effigy. The neo-conservatives turned to liberals that they could control and President Jimmy Carter was suitable for that task. He could be marketed as a ‘Mr. Smith Comes to Washington’ figure but would be rendered powerless by the political situation and if worse came to worse he could be controlled through blackmail. Carter had traded favors to the CIA for power to help bring Cocaine into Atlanta and that had been held against him even after he became President. Carter didn’t understand why his presidency had become such a failure until halfway through his term; the very people he had trusted to govern were doing their best to ensure that he failed. The neo-conservatives were using their financial connections with governments that had participated in Nixon’s dollar scheme to create economic instability during his tenure, no doubt to further devolve presidential power. The Consortium was also fermenting a civil war in Iran, funding both sides of the conflict as a favor to both China and Saudi Arabia.

Carter, like the Democrats before him turned to the same marihuana agents JFK had relied upon to stop the Opium Mob before. He realized he was not in a position to stop them directly but if he could commission this group to aid the marihuana rights group NORML in decriminalizing marihuana throughout the United States, there may have been a way to battle the heroin/cocaine revolution that was being brought about by the conservatives. The technique was initially a resounding success, with 9 states decriminalizing in 1976. However this tale of marihuana freedom was to be short lived.

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Keith Stroup and NORML had been in a vicious court battle with the DEA over marihuana and had made some head way with the Office of National Drug Control Policy in early 1978. Jimmy Carter in order to combat the Consortium had finally considered rescheduling marihuana to a different classification other than a Schedule I substance. This seemed like a major victory for Stroup, the Yippies and Thomas Forcade of High Times, who had all pushed for marihuana legalization and decriminalization. Stroup was approached prior to the meeting by DEA asset Greg Allman of the Allman Brothers who had become a big mule for cocaine and had been a close friend of Keith Stroup. Greg warned Keith that the money that he had built his organization on would no longer be there after marihuana was decriminalized because the price would bottom out. Stroup could do what Allman and some of the other rock stars, like John Entwhistle of The Who, which was act as both distributor and informant to maximize their return from the drug game. Stroup was turned on to the idea, Greg gave Keith some cocaine for his Washington DC trip to ‘give to the president’, a warning to Carter about his past and what could happen to him politically if he was to disobey.

Keith Stroup

Keith Stroup

On the day of the meeting Stroup met with Jimmy Carter and the JFK-BNDD marihuana squad ready to change history and reverse the damage brought on by Harry J Anslinger and Richard Nixon. Stroup sat down alone in Carter’s office awaiting Drug Czar Peter Bourne as Carter left the room to attend to some other matters with Zbigniew Brzezinski. Stroup opened his pocket and removed the small amount of Cocaine that Greg Allman had given him. He walked over to the president’s chair and sat down in it, pouring the white powder from the vial into a straight line across the President’s mahogany desk. Stroup put his down and began to sniff, inhaling the white power loudly and deeply as Peter Bourne walked in. The Director for the Office of National Drug Control Policy was outraged, Stroup had defiled the desk of the presidency and with Cocaine no less. Marihuana reform was dead instantly, Stroup and NORML were effectively blackballed forever. Carter himself would fall along with the American economy and the state of Iran.

The California Coup

The Sensimilla Wars is worth mentioning here, that was a conflict between the California state liberals and the neo-conservatives in 1979. George Moscone and Harvey Milk had been assassinated in San Francisco a year before for looking into the DEA’s relationship with the Peoples Temple and its connection to members of the San Francisco City Council including one Dianne Feinstein. Harvey’s issue was that he thought they wouldn’t go to the lengths that they were always willing to go. Feinstein was agent of the Chinese interests and you have to remember, its late 1978, the conservatives are trying to bring the Democrats down at this time, Carter’s under fire; the country was on the verge of a major Republican takeover. Milk thought the People’s Temple was going to help him runs thing up north, he had everyone up there all brainwashed with religion and endless toke, but after Jonestown that all fell apart. The Republicans told Feinstein she could have her cake and eat it too if she helped them take out Milk and let them take over the northern marijuana fields.

Feinstein

Feinstein

So yeah Harvey Milk was killed so Feinstein could become the Mayor of San Francisco during the Reagan years, she was their gal so to speak and in return the Republicans under California Attorney General and Governor-to-be George Deukmejian began waging his own little private war against the Emerald Triangle throughout all of 1979. Feinstein was already banging Richard Blum around that time, her husband Bertram Feinstein mysteriously died while she was in Nepal with Blum helping secure some secret drug agreement with the Chinese.  Feinstein supposedly found the body of Harvey Milk which was able to clear her away from implications in the assassination but Ill tell you for certain that she was the one who ordered that trigger to be pulled. Her and her husband’s Chinese connection now runs San Francisco and California in many ways.

The Sinsemilla Wars started immediately after Milk died. Republican banks used their powers to lean on Emerald Triangle landowners, drive them off their lands; the interest rate hikes broke everyone too back then. All of the CAMP raids started that year, the Sheriff raids, the helicopters, the plant seizures; those farms had been there for years and now Feinstein and Deukmejian were taking control of it. Jerry Brown sold us out to them, he was complicit just as he’s always been; working for the prison guards unions and the DEA to jail us all out here in California.

Operation Sensemilla was the official name of the attack on the Emerald Triangle, and really that initial raid changed the game forever. It made all the growers and hippies paranoid and scared of the narcs; it was the Robespierran Reign of Terror if there ever was one for all of those growers. They went up and down the coast terrorizing all the farmers for even the most meager crop of plants. That was the first big raid of the mountain and that’s why everyone who lives up there now is a hardcore anti-government libertarian, its because the Neocons burned them all so bad to enslave the place. Now everyone up there is subject to the tributary system under the middlemen we have now.

New World Order

Reagan

Reagan

The second coup d’etat of the neo-conservatives would enter its primacy along with the rise of Ronald Reagan, the RICO statues and the Age of Cocaine that was the 1980s. Oliver North sold crack into the ghettos of Los Angeles to pay for CIA-DEA operations in Central America and Iran to further expand the trade. Joe Biden was key in legislation that expanded drug tasks forces and empowered DEA front groups like Wackenhut, which started setting up warehouse style prisons to begin housing all of the ethnic and lower class drug inmates that would be brought in by Reagan’s mandatory minimum sentencing laws. The AIDS epidemic would begin wiping out the gay population in 1981 and would soon spread to larger portions of the population by the late 80s. The wealth of the American conservative establishment would grow at the same rate of incarcerations throughout the 1980s as ‘supply side economics’ reallocated the peoples assets to the top and little by little started etching away at the social protections of the New Deal. The Republican’s would reach their apex with the election of George H.W. Bush, a member of the Consortium himself by birth, who had already governed as de facto President throughout most of the Reagan years and held an iron grip over the intelligence and narcotics intelligence communities. The effects of Reaganonmics, wealth inequality, the drug war, AIDS and many other issues would lead to his undoing in the 1992 election with his loss to Bill Clinton.

Clinton had seen enough destruction under the rule of the Republicans during his reign as Governor of Arkansas. His state had been used as a major cocaine transportation corridor for Atlanta and the economic impact has made it very difficult to govern. The AIDS crisis was also intensifying and pharmaceutical treatments were not working as the Big 5 intended. Clinton became aware of the buried pharmaceutical studies that had indicated possible retroviral effects from the cannabis plant but it needed to be explored further, once again the group of JFK hippies were reached out to  form Cannabis Buyer’s Clubs that AIDS/HIV and cancer patients could join to participate in a ‘government experiment on cannabis treatment’. These figures, which included well known marihuana figures became known as the Pioneers of Medical Marihuana. They were tasked with recruiting suitable marihuana growers to create a network of collectives throughout the United States that could offer marihuana treatment to the sick in need. This is where Medical Marihuana as a political term came from.

Bill Clinton

Bill Clinton

However the marihuana renaissance under Clinton was not meant to last when the 2000 election was rigged in Dade County Florida in favor of George W. Bush. The country had slipped too far out of the hands of the conservative elite, the rise in popularity of marihuana in the 1990’s along with the toppling of the Medellin and Cali cocaine cartels led to a steep decline in the use of Cocaine. Even an attempt to bring in foreign heroin through Canada had not been as effective as the conservatives has hoped in socially discrediting the liberals. Bush immediately put the DEA to work into taking over the medical marihuana movement by exercising their relationships with NORML to open DEA controlled medical marihuana dispensaries in California. Don Duncan, a DEA agent from Texas and loyal servant to the Bush family, was brought in to head Americans For Safe Access which would serve as a political front group for the DEA’s marihuana operations. Other DEA assets like Marc Emery were utilized in Canada to create an influx of marihuana seeds into the US market and then subsequently jobbed out once the Opium Mob took control of the seed market. Even some of the old Pioneers who had been loyal to Clinton were successfully intimidated into playing double agent for the Bush DEA just to stay out of prison themselves. George Soros of the Quantum Fund, who had performed banking services for the Opium Mob in London and Peter Lewis, the Progressive Insurance magnate and agent of the Guggenheim Estate, were brought in to establish the Marihuana Policy Project and the Drug Policy Alliance, along with Richard Lee. Select informants from the Italian Mob such as Steve D’Angelo were also empowered by the DEA to set up middleman rackets throughout California and create a patronage system among the hippie growers in the mountains of Northern California.

ASA Scumbag-in-Chief Don Duncan

ASA Scumbag-in-Chief Don Duncan

Under the Bush regime the growers would be forced to sell their marihuana to this new Marihuana Mafia of dispensary middlemen at pennies on the dollar to be sold for several metrics larger at the dispensaries themselves; the middlemen would feed a sacrifice to the DEA on an annual basis, selecting a few of their more expandable growers to be victims to DEA camp raids while the D’Angelo, ASA, NORML, MPP and DPA controlled marihuana clubs such as Harborside were continued to operate with impunity. Patients, growers and caregivers alike throughout the Bush years were victimized by these so-called stalwarts of pot legalization who had in fact been DEA assets participating in the entrapment of the patients within the Reaganite mandatory minimum sentencing laws. Innocent people were given stiff federal charges, had their kids taken away, their homes, their cars, all of their money; everything they knew and loved were stripped away from them because of the greed of these DEA Marihuana Mobsters.

"El Generalissimo" Miguel Lopez

“El Generalissimo” Miguel Lopez

The current state of marihuana is now in flux. President Obama, seeking to end the AIDS crises has re-empowered the old marihuana group with some new blood to push for the rescheduling of medical marihuana. In their way stands the DEA sponsored legalization movement which is still represented by Steve DeAngelo and Don Duncan, but also has new faces from the Mexican Cartel, like the 420 Rally leader, Miguel Lopez; these men are informants and agents of the DEA and their purpose is to create profits for the DEA’s illegal seizures and to create entrapment like situations for growers, caregivers and patients alike.

The only way this whole charade is going to end is through the rescheduling of medical marihuana and the removal of the marihuana from the black market. By changing marijuana from a Class I substance to a Class IV or V substance, it can be federally regulated as a medicine and the people who control the Marijuana Mafia can be held accountable for their actions in adulterating the medicine, violations of the RICO statues, violations of Anti-Money Laundering law, and in patient abuse and protection laws. This cabal of gangsters can no longer be allowed to remain on the body of American liberty like a disease bearing parasite, eating away at the fabric of American life by dissolving our wealth and sending it to faraway lands. We must reschedule not just to free the plant but to free ourselves.

Anonymous

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Free Grazing & Law Breaking: Cliven Bundy’s Stand against the Government

The truth about the Grazing Controversy in Nevada and the so called “Stand” that took place there by the right wing nutcases.

The Southwest Journal

Hoodoo Brown and the Dodge City Gang - Photo Courtesty of List25.com Hoodoo Brown and the Dodge City Gang – Photo Courtesy of List25.com

Here in America, we love our outlaws. We idolize them, romanticize them, and keep them alive in songs, folklore, stories, and movies. What is it that is so alluring about them? Perhaps it is for how they are remembered in myth as being Robin Hood type figures. Or maybe it is their bravado to stick a finger in the eye of the government, their courage and daring against all odds, or even their arrogance to attempt such feats that captures our imagination, but history remembers them differently. Outlaws were often murderers, thieves, gamblers, and criminals who did very little for the common or local folk. While they might be charming in movies and we can admire them from afar, none of us likes a law breaker. We all inherently understand this when we are the victim of law…

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