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Required Reading – Operation Jedburgh and OSS China – Part 4

EDITOR: The mysterious Paul Helliwell was the Station Chief of OSS China, the leader of the renegade commando group and the original architect of the CIA drugs-for-arms trade that would be the center of the Consortiums power. He was one of the top operatives for the CIA, the Mob and the Consortium, helping expand narcotics operations worldwide. Helliwell also controlled the finances of Operation J/M-Wave, the main CIA team picked from former Jedburgh Elite that was to conduct the Bay of Pigs assassination program. William Pawley was also key CIA figures in expanding the global narcotics trade in Central and South America. He was Tommy Corcoran’s main partner in Air America. He played a significant role in the Bay of Pigs and Operation J/M-Wave. Operation J/M-Wave was the CIA operation to assassinate Castro and recover the Consortium assets through the overthrow of Cuban communism.

Excerpts from Operation Jedburgh

by John Simkin (1997) – Part 4

Jedburgh Team Profiles

Paul Helliwell

Paul Helliwell (Left)

Paul Helliwell (Left)

Paul Lional Edward Helliwell was born in 1915. He was a lawyer before he joined the United States Army during the Second World War. Later he was transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) where he served under William Donovan. Helliwell was sent to China where he worked with Ray S. Cline, Richard Helms, E. Howard Hunt, Jake Esterline, Mitchell WerBell, John K. Singlaub, Jack Anderson, Robert Emmett Johnson and Lucien Conein. Others working in China at that time included Tommy Corcoran, Whiting Willauer and William Pawley.

OSS Patch

OSS Patch

In 1943 Colonel Paul Helliwell became head of the Secret Intelligence Branch of the OSS in Europe. Helliwell was replaced in this post by William Casey in 1945. Helliwell became chief of the Far East Division of the War Department’s Strategic Service Unit, an interim intelligence organization formed after OSS was closed down. In 1947 Helliwell joined the Central Intelligence Agency. In May 1949, General Claire Chennault had a meeting with Harry S. Truman and advocated an increase in funds for Chaing Kai-shek and his Kuomintang Army (KMT) in his war in China. Truman dismissed the idea as impractical. However, Frank Wisner, was more sympathetic and when Mao Zedong took power in China in 1950, he sent Helliwell to Taiwan.

China 1947

China 1947

Early 1949

Early 1949

China Advances on Opium Producing Regions (1949)

China Advances on Opium Producing Regions (1949)

Helliwell’s main job was to help Chaing Kai-shek to prepare for a future invasion of Communist China. The CIA created a pair of front companies to supply and finance the surviving forces of Chaing’s KMT. Paul Helliwell was put in charge of this operation. This included establishing Civil Air Transport (CAT), a Taiwan-based airline, and the Sea Supply Corporation, a shipping company in Bangkok. It was Helliwell’s idea to use these CIA fronted companies to raise money to help support Chaing Kai-shek. According to Joseph Trento (Prelude to Terror): “Through Sea Supply, Helliwell imported large amounts of arms for the KMT soldiers to keep the Burmese military from throwing them out of the country. The arms were ferried into Burma on CAT airplanes. CAT then used the “empty” planes to fly drugs from Burma to Taiwan, Bangkok, and Saigon. There the drugs were processed for the benefit of the KMT and Chiang Kai-shek’s corrupt government on Taiwan.”

Civil Air Transport (CAT), later renamed Air America, provided the CIA with the air power needed to sustain its covert operations for the next twenty-five years. Helliwell was to play an important role in running these covert, and often illegal operations. By the late 1950s it became clear that Chaing Kai-shek would never be strong enough to invade China. The main focus changed to stopping the spread of communism to countries like Burma, Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. At the time, the main group fighting communism in the region were the large private armies controlled by the drug lords. For example, General Vang Pao was employing his 30,000-man army to help the Pathet Lao. In return for joining the CIA, Helliwell helped Vang Pao to modernize the drug trade. William Corson claims that: “Portable heroin processing facilities were brought in. It was a creation of the CIA’s technical services division.” Some of these profits went to help CIA run some unofficial covert operations.

Gen. Vang Pao (Laos)

Gen. Vang Pao (Laos)

In 1960 Paul Helliwell was transferred to provide business cover for the CIA’s Cuban operations. According to Peter Dale Scott (The Iran Contra Connection) Helliwell worked with E. Howard Hunt, Mitch WerBell and Lucien Conein on developing relationships with drug-dealing Cuban veterans of the Bay of Pigs invasion. It was during this period that Helliwell met Ted Shackley and Thomas Clines. Helliwell later became CIA paymaster for JM/WAVE. In this way, Shackley was able to finance unofficial CIA operations against Cuba.

OSS_117,_Le_Caire_nid_d'espions_poster

After the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Helliwell was sent by the CIA to the Bahamas where he set up offshore banks for CIA use. At first he established the Mercantile Bank and Trust Company and then the Castle Bank and Trust Company. Helliwell also ran the American Bankers Insurance Company based in Galveston, Texas. This provided insurance cover for businessmen who cooperated with the CIA. Helliwell also created the Intercontinental Holding, a company in the Cayman Islands that owned the Lear jet used by Barry Seal for his drug running activities. Helliwell also established a Miami office for the Sea Supply Corporation. According to Joseph Trento (Prelude to Terror): “The primary objective of Helliwell’s operations in Florida was to cement the CIA’s relationship with organized crime.” This included Santos Trafficante, who had a common business interest in Asia, the “successful exportation of Chinese white heroin.”

According to Daniel Hopsicker (Barry and the Boys), Helliwell ran Red Sunset Enterprises in Miami. Hopsicker claims it was a CIA front company set up to recruit frogmen and explosives experts for Operation Mongoose. In 1973 the Internal Revenue Service began an investigation called Operation Trade Winds. During its investigation it discovered that some major organized crime figures such as Morris Dalitz, Morris Kleinman and Samuel A. Tucker were using the Castle Bank and Trust Company. It soon became clear that the bank was laundering CIA funds and drug profits. The IRS eventually announced that it was dropping its investigation of Castle Bank because of “legal problems”. According to the Wall Street Journal, the reasons for this was “pressure from the Central Intelligence Agency”.

Gangster Moe Dalitz

Gangster Moe Dalitz

The CIA now needed a new bank. Later that year, Frank Nugan, an Australian lawyer, and Michael Hand, a former CIA contract operative, established the Nugan Hand Bank. Another key figure in this venture was Bernie Houghton, who was closely connected to CIA officials, Ted Shackley and Thomas G. Clines. Nugan ran operations in Sydney whereas Hand established a branch in Hong Kong. This enabled Australian depositors to access a money-laundering facility for illegal transfers of Australian money to Hong Kong. According to Alfred W. McCoy, the “Hand-Houghton partnership led the bank’s international division into new fields – drug finance, arms trading, and support work for CIA covert operations.” Hand told friends “it was his ambition that Nugan Hand became banker for the CIA.”

Helliwell continued to work as a lawyer in Miami and served as legal counsel to a Panamanian holding company that controlled a Bahamian gambling casino connected with Meyer Lansky. Paul Helliwell died from emphysema on 24th December, 1976.

oss_sabotage

Paul Helliwell, instructions to all agents of the Secret Intelligence Branch of the OSS in Europe (26th January, 1943)

“Psychological warfare is the employment of all moral and physical means other than orthodox military operations which tend to: destroy the will and ability of the enemy to resist; deprive him of the support of his allies and neutrals; increase in our own troops and allies the will to victory. This must be consonant with national policy and coordinated with orthodox military operations. The implements of psychological warfare include open propaganda, black propaganda, subversion, and sabotage, special phases of economic and political pressure, and cultural contacts. Since psychological warfare can be waged successfully only when supplemented by adequate intelligence, it becomes necessary that a flow of information regarding the psychological state of mind of groups and populations in both enemy and neutral countries, and their reaction to psychological warfare conducted by our agencies and those of our allies, be available to this office. Therefore, supplementary to your present activities, it is desired by the Director that you secure and send reports regarding the vulnerabilities of enemy groups, both civil and military, and neutral populations which can be exploited for psychological warfare.”

OSS Structure

OSS Structure

Paul Helliwell, Instructional Memorandum on Intelligence Operations (1943)

“Relatively accurate facts can be secured as to the activities of the civil government, and the parties or political groups exercising power at the moment, and these reports should be in considerable detail. The more difficult task of securing accurate information as to minority political groups and subversive political organizations constitutes a very real challenge to the Director. He must develop contacts within such groups, or place loyal agents in such groups as members. Such opposition forces should be assisted in every possible way in their aim to interfere with the functioning of the government in power. Financial support should be offered and, if accepted, should be given in such a way that that future actions of the group can be controlled. This can best be accomplished by requiring that one of our agents be given a high position in the organization and that he exercise control over the finances. … Efforts should be made to foment social unrest in the hostile national by agitating the current social problems and pitting one class against the other. A sub-Director who is thoroughly acquainted with the history of the hostile nation and its peoples should be assigned to study this problem and direct a planned campaign. … In studying his territory the Director will know the key points in the enemy installations but generally such points will be carefully protected and sabotage of such point must be the act of “desperate” men who have been especially selected and especially trained. … Propaganda should be divided into two categories, one being the Propaganda Reconnaissance Agent and the other the Propaganda Distributing Agent…”

“Orders to employees must always be verbal, definite and understandable. It is best to repeat orders, and to have the employee repeat the order, until it is positive that it is clearly understood. Orders should never be given in writing… The disposition to be made of an employee who proves to be unsatisfactory or disloyal should be a part of the Director’s plan. If the employee proves to be disloyal and is in possession of dangerous information, he should probably be killed…”

“Informers should be made available to known hostile agents and false or misleading information furnished. These informers may be either unwitting individuals or agents engaged (in a) deliberately planned campaign. The activities of known enemy organizations or agents might be embarrassed by rendering anonymous reports to police authorities and thus subjecting them to embarrassing inquiries. When possible their activities might be made the subject of reports to newspapers and thus secure them unfavorable publicity. The wives and relatives of known hostile agents should be given scandalous information, and embarrassing information of this type should be disseminated so that it reaches the ears of the superiors of a hostile agent.”

Opium

Opium

Jonathan Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots (1987)

“So the CIA began supplying the KMT through two front companies: Civil Air Transport, headquartered in Taiwan, and Sea Supply Corporation, headquartered in Bangkok. Only a few people with top security clearance knew that both companies were covertly owned by the U.S. Government. They are important, not only for what they did in the 1950s, but also because they were precursors of organizations that touch directly on Nugan Hand in the 1970s.

After China was given up on, the focus of U.S. efforts in East Asia shifted to Indochina. Civil Air Transport was then transformed into (among several successor entities) Air America. That was the airline Michael Hand worked closely with as a CIA contract agent. Many of the CIA associates whose money first helped Hand get started in business in Australia were Air America employes.Sea Supply Corporation, for its part, was founded and run by a lawyer and CIA operative named Paul Helliwell.

During World War II, Helliwell had been chief of special intelligence in China for the OSS. Colleagues from those days told the Wall Street Journal’s Jim Drinkhall that Helliwell, then a colonel, regularly used to buy information with five-pound shipments of opium (“three sticky brown bars,” one man said). Drinkhall also reported being told that Helliwell ran an operation code-named “Deer Mission,” in which OSS personnel secretly parachuted into Indochina to treat Ho Chi Minh for malaria. After the heyday of Sea Supply in the 1950s, Helliwell moved to Miami and became an important figure in the Bay of Pigs invasion and the CIA’s other battles against Castro. His Castle Bank both funneled money for the CIA and, privately, operated as a profitable tax-cheat business. Its unexpected demise in the mid-1970s directly coincided with the growth of Nugan Hand. Considering the gaggle of brass from the U.S. intelligence community who helped push Nugan Hand into orbit in the late 1970s, there has been understandable speculation that Nugan Hand was Castle Bank’s successor.”

Largest Heroin Producing Regions After 1950

Largest Heroin Producing Regions After 1950

 

William Pawley

William Pawley

William Pawley

 

William Douglas Pawley was born in Florence, South Carolina, on 7th September, 1896. His father was a wealthy businessman based in Cuba and Pawley attended private schools in both Havana and Santiago. He later returned to the United States where he studied at the Gordon Military Academy in Georgia. In 1925 Pawley began work as an estate agent in Miami. Two years later he began working for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. In 1928 Pawley returned to Cuba to become president of the Nacional Cubana de Aviacion Curtiss. He held this post until the company was sold to Pan American Airways in 1932.

Pawley now became president of the Intercontinent Corporation based in New York. The following year he moved to China where he became president of the China National Aviation Corporation. Over the next five years he built three aircraft factories for the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-shek. Pawley also formed a business relationship with Tommy Corcoran. In 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had asked Corcoran to establish a private corporation to provide assistance to the nationalist government in China. Roosevelt even supplied the name of the proposed company, China Defense Supplies. He also suggested that his uncle, Frederick Delano, should be co-chairman of the company. Chiang nominated his former finance minister, Tse-ven Soong, as the other co-chairman.

foto-thommy_the_cork

Corcoran

For reasons of secrecy, Corcoran took no title other than outside counsel for China Defense Supplies. William S. Youngman was his frontman in China. Corcoran’s friend, Whitey Willauer, was moved to the Foreign Economic Administration, where he supervised the sending of supplies to China. In this way Corcoran was able to create an Asian Lend-Lease program. Pawley also worked closely with Claire Lee Chennault, who had been working as a military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek since 1937. Chennault told Tommy Corcoran that if he was given the resources, he could maintain an air force within China that could carry out raids against the Japanese. Corcoran returned to the United States and managed to persuade Franklin D. Roosevelt to approve the creation of the American Volunteer Group.

William Pawley became involved and he arranged for one hundred P-40 fighters, built by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, that had been intended for Britain, to be redirected to Chennault in China. Pawley also arranged for the P-40 to be assembled in Rangoon. It was Tommy Corcoran’s son David who suggested that the American Volunteer Group should be called the Flying Tigers. Chennault liked the idea and asked his friend, Walt Disney, to design a tiger emblem for the planes. On 13th April, 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a secret executive order authorizing the American Volunteer Group to recruit reserve officers from the army, navy and marines. Pawley suggested that the men should be recruited as “flying instructors”.

In July, 1941, ten pilots and 150 mechanics were supplied with fake passports and sailed from San Francisco for Rangoon. When they arrived they were told that they were really involved in a secret war against Japan. To compensate for the risks involved, the pilots were to be paid $600 a month ($675 for a patrol leader). In addition, they were to receive $500 for every enemy plane they shot down. The Flying Tigers were extremely effective in their raids on Japanese positions and helped to slow down attempts to close the Burma Road, a key supply route to China. In seven months of fighting, the Flying Tigers destroyed 296 planes at a loss of 24 men (14 while flying and 10 on the ground).

Flying Tigers

Flying Tigers

In 1944 Pawley became president of the Industan Aircraft Manufacturing Company in Bangalore, India. Pawley was responsible for building India’s first ammonium-sulfate plant in Trannvanacore. After the war Pawley became a diplomat. In 1945 Harry S. Truman appointed Pawley as U.S. Ambassador to Peru. Soon afterwards left-wing newspapers in Lima began to claim that Pawley was making “lucrative deals” for himself in Peru. This involved transporting unspecified goods in and out of Peru.

In 1948 Pawley became Ambassador to Brazil. During this time he became a FBI informant. He passed information to J. Edgar Hoover claiming that Spruille Braden, the Ambassador to Argentina was under the control of communist advisers such as Gustavo Duran and George Michanowsky. In a document dated the 7th September, 1948, Pawley suggested that Braden was attempting to expose “non-existant and imagery Nazis in Latin America” as a cover for his communist sympathies. Pawley also claimed that William A. Wieland, who worked as a press officer for the embassy in Brazil, held “anti-capitalist” views.

Pawley continued to be involved in various business projects. He was a close friend of President Rafael Trujillo and together with George Smathers, had invested in the bauxite industry in the Dominican Republic. He was also extremely friendly with Fulgencio Batista and in 1948 he established Autobuses Modernos in Cuba. A company he later sold to Batista.

Chiang Kai Shek

Chiang Kai Shek

On 7th November, 1949, Pawley sent a memorandum to the State Department suggesting that a small group of Americans should be sent to Formosa in order to help protect the government of Chiang Kai-shek. Pawley claimed that Dean Acheson rejected the idea after consulting with advisers such as Owen Lattimore, John C. Vincent and John Davis. In February, 1951 Pawley became special assistant to Acheson. Later that year he held a similar post under Robert A. Lovett. However, he discovered that the State Department considered him to be a reactionary and he was denied access to secret documents concerning Latin America.

Pawley was an active member of the Republican Party. A close friend of both President Dwight Eisenhower and CIA director Allen W. Dulles, he took part in a policy that later become known as Executive Action (a plan to remove unfriendly foreign leaders from power). Pawley played a role Operation Success, a CIA plot to overthrow the Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954 after he introduced land reforms and nationalized the United Fruit Company. John Foster Dulles decided that he “needed a civilian adviser to the State Department team to help expediate Operation Success”. Dulles selected William Pawley. In his book Peddling Influence (2005), David McKean argues that Pawley’s most important qualification for the job was his “long association with right-wing Latin America dictators.”

Fulgencio Batista

Fulgencio Batista

Gaeton Fonzi points out in his book, The Last Investigation: “Pawley had also owned major sugar interests in Cuba, as well as Havana’s bus, trolley and gas systems and he was close to both pre-Castro Cuban rulers, President Carlos Prio and General Fulgencio Batista. (Pawley was one of the dispossessed American investors in Cuba who early tried to convince Eisenhower that Castro was a Communist and urged him to arm the exiles in Miami.)”

In March 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower, disillusioned with Batista’s government, insisted he held elections. This he did, but the people showed their unhappiness with his government by refusing to vote. Over 75 per cent of the voters in the capital Havana boycotted the polls. In some areas, such as Santiago, it was as high as 98 per cent. Some members of the State Department came to the conclusion that it would be in America’s best long-term interest in Cuba to be seen as opposing Batista. William A. Wieland, Director of the Caribbean and Central American Affairs, was against America providing support for the Cuban dictator. As the U.S. Ambassador of Cuba, Earl E. T. Smith was later to tell a Senate Committee: “He (Wieland) believed that it would be in the best interest of Cuba and the best interest of the world in general when Batista was removed from office.”

Wieland was not the only one who took that view. According to Pawley and Smith, Roy R. Rubottom, Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs, John L. Topping, Chief of the Political Section and the Chief of the CIA Section, held similar opinions. Pawley and Smith also identified Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times as being an important figure in providing support for the idea of regime change in Cuba. Smith pointed out that “Matthews wrote three articles on Fidel Castro, which appeared on the front page of the New York Times, in which he eulogized Fidel Castro and portrayed him as a political Robin Hood.

On 9th December, 1958, Pawley had a meeting with Fulgencio Batista. Pawley told Batista that he was losing the support of the American government. Pawley suggested that the Cuban dictator should resign and allow an anti-Castro and anti-Batista caretaker junta to take over. Batista rejected the idea and on 14th December, William A. Wieland, speaking for the State Department instructed Earl E. T. Smith, to inform Batista that he no longer had the support of the US government and that he should leave Cuba at once. On 1st January, 1959, Batista fled to the Dominican Republic.

Cuban Revolution

Cuban Revolution

Pawley later told a Senate Committee on Latin American Affairs: “I believe that the deliberate overthrow of Batista by Wieland and Matthews, assisted by Rubottom, is almost as great a tragedy as the surrendering of China to the Communists by a similar group of Department of State officials fifteen or sixteen years ago and we will not see the end in cost of American lives and American recourses for these tragic errors.” After Batista was overthrown by Fidel Castro, Pawley pressurized President Dwight Eisenhower to provide military and financial help to anti-Castro Cubans based in the United States. Recently released FBI files suggest he worked closely with Manuel Artime in efforts to overthrow Castro.

In the winter of 1962 Eddie Bayo claimed that two officers in the Red Army based in Cuba wanted to defect to the United States. Bayo added that these men wanted to pass on details about atomic warheads and missiles that were still in Cuba despite the agreement that followed the Cuban Missile Crisis. Bayo had originally fought with Fidel Castro against Fulgencio Batista. He disagreed with Castro’s policies after he gained power and moved to Miami and helped establish Alpha 66. His story was eventually taken up by several members of the anti-Castro community including Gerry P. Hemming, John Martino, Felipe Vidal Santiago and Frank Sturgis. Pawley became convinced that it was vitally important to help get these Soviet officers out of Cuba. To help this happen he communicated with James Eastland, the chairman of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, about this story.

CIA Chief Ted Shackley

CIA Chief Ted Shackley

Pawley also contacted Ted Shackley, head of the CIA’s JM WAVE station in Miami. Shackley decided to help Pawley organize what became known as Operation Tilt. He also assigned William (Rip) Robertson, a fellow member of the CIA in Miami, to help with the operation. David Sanchez Morales, another CIA agent, also became involved in this attempt to bring out these two Soviet officers. In June, 1963, a small group, including Pawley, Eddie Bayo, William (Rip) Robertson, John Martino, and Richard Billings, a journalist working for Life Magazine, secretly arrived in Cuba. They were unsuccessful in their attempts to find these Soviet officers and they were forced to return to Miami. Bayo remained behind and it was rumored that he had been captured and executed. However, his death was never reported in the Cuban press.

William Pawley died of gunshot wounds in January, 1977. Officially it was suicide but some researchers believe it was connected to the investigations being carried out by the House Select Committee on Assassinations. However, a relative Cash Pawley, has argued: “Bill Pawley had acquired a severe case of Shingles years earlier, which had progressed across his entire body (even the soles of his feet). He had been unable to lay down, stand or become comfortable in any position. The pain was excruciating, and there was no modern medicine(s) for a cure or even proper pain management at the time. Therefore, Mr. Pawley suffered day in and day out, until he just could not do it anymore. This was the reason for his suicide.”

Bay of Pigs

Bay of Pigs

 

Operation J/M-Wave

Location of J/M-Wave

Location of J/M-Wave

JM WAVE was the Central Intelligence Agency station in Florida. Located south of Miami in a heavily wooded 1,571-acre tract. The numerous buildings were said to belong to Zenith Technological Enterprises.

After the Bay of Pigs disaster President John F. Kennedy created a committee (SGA) charged with overthrowing Castro’s government. The SGA, chaired by Robert F. Kennedy (Attorney General), included John McCone (CIA Director), McGeorge Bundy (National Security Adviser), Alexis Johnson (State Department), Roswell Gilpatric (Defence Department), General Lyman Lemnitzer (Joint Chiefs of Staff) and General Maxwell Taylor. Although not officially members, Dean Rusk (Secretary of State) and Robert S. McNamara (Secretary of Defence) also attending meetings.

At a meeting of this committee at the White House on 4th November, 1961, it was decided to call this covert action program for sabotage and subversion against Cuba, Operation Mongoose. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy also decided that General Edward Lansdale (Staff Member of the President’s Committee on Military Assistance) should be placed in charge of the operation.

The CIA JM WAVE station in Miami served as operational headquarters for Operation Mongoose. The head of the station was Ted Shackley and over the next few months became very involved in the attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro. One of Lansdale’s first decisions was to appoint William Harvey as head of Task Force W. Harvey’s brief was to organize a broad range of activities that would help to bring down Castro’s government. By the spring of 1962, JM/WAVE employed more than 200 CIA officers. They in turn ran over 2,200 Cuban agents. JM/WAVE had a navy of over 100 craft, including the 174-foot Rex,that had the latest electronic equipment and 40-millimeter and 20-millimeter cannons. The CIA station also had a large number of V-20 Swift craft and access to F-105 Phantoms from nearby Homestead Air Force Base.

Gen. Edward Lansdale

Gen. Edward Lansdale

William Harvey was ordered to activate an assassination plot against Fidel Castro. This became known as the ZR/RIFLE project. Harvey arranged for David Sanchez Morales to move from Mexico City to join the project based at the JM WAVE station. In the winter of 1962 Eddie Bayo claimed that two officers in the Red Army based in Cuba wanted to defect to the United States. Bayo added that these men wanted to pass on details about atomic warheads and missiles that were still in Cuba despite the agreement that followed the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Bayo’s story was eventually taken up by several members of the anti-Castro community including William Pawley, Gerry P. Hemming, John Martino, Felipe Vidal Santiago and Frank Sturgis. Pawley became convinced that it was vitally important to help get these Soviet officers out of Cuba.

William Pawley contacted Ted Shackley, the head at JM WAVE. Shackley decided to help Pawley organize what became known as Operation Tilt. He also assigned Rip Robertson, a fellow member of the CIA in Miami, to help with the operation. David Sanchez Morales, another CIA agent, also became involved in this attempt to bring out these two Soviet officers. In June, 1963, a small group, including William Pawley, Eddie Bayo, Rip Robertson, John Martino, and Richard Billings, a journalist working for Life Magazine, secretly arrived in Cuba. They were unsuccessful in their attempts to find these Soviet officers and they were forced to return to Miami. Bayo remained behind and it was rumoured that he had been captured and executed. However, his death was never reported in the Cuban press.

– The Green Chazzan 

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Required Reading – Operation Jedburgh and OSS China – Part 3

EDITOR: Thomas Corcoran was the original bagman for the Jedburgh Teams and was their main connection to members of the oligarchical establishment. He was the creator of OSS China and masterminded the opium-for-guns trade out of Southeast Asia. Corcoran had very strong political connections in both the Democratic and Republican parties and was often able to use the CIA to support his war profiteering and drug trafficking efforts. Corcoran was also one of the main operatives behind the notorious United Fruit Company in Central America and also shared an active role in the Bay of Pigs.

Excerpts from Operation Jedburgh

by John Simkin (1997) – Part 3

Jedburgh Team Profiles

Tommy Corcoran

Tommy Corcoran

Tommy Corcoran

Thomas Corcoran, the son of a lawyer, was born in Rhode Island on 29th December, 1899. He was educated at Brown University and Harvard Law School. Corcoran’s most important influence at university was Professor Felix Frankfurter. He wrote that Corcoran was “struggling very hard with the burden of inferiority imposed on him because of his Irish Catholicism”. Frankfurter was impressed with Corcoran’s progress and introduced him to his close friend, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. After graduating in 1926 he was invited by Holmes to become his legal clerk.

In 1927 Corcoran joined the law firm established by William McAdoo. At the time it was run by George Franklin and Joseph Cotton. In 1932 Eugene Meyer, chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, was looking for a general counsel for the newly established Reconstruction Finance Corporation. After talks with Franklin he appointed Corcoran to this post. Meyer resigned in 1933 and was replaced by Jesse H. Jones. After Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Herbert Hoover he asked Felix Frankfurter to assemble a legal team to review the nation’s securities laws. Frankfurter selected Corcoran, Benjamin Cohen and James Landis for the task. Corcoran, a member of the Democratic Party, readily accepted the post. Together they drafted the legislation that created the Securities and Exchange Commission.

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William E. Leuchtenburg, the author of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal (1963), has pointed out: “Corcoran was a new political type: the expert who not only drafted legislation but maneuvered it through the treacherous corridors of Capitol Hill.” Ray S. Cline added: “Corcoran… says that his greatest contribution to government in his long career was helping infiltrate smart young Harvard Law School products into every agency of government. He felt the United States needed to develop a highly educated, highly motivated public service corps that had not existed before Roosevelt’s time.”

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Corcoran also became involved in advising Franklin D. Roosevelt over foreign policy. Although he had liberal views on domestic issues, Corcoran was passionately anti-communist. This was partly because of his Roman Catholicism. Roosevelt initially favoured giving help to the Republican government in Spain. However, Corcoran was a supporter of the fascist movement led by General Francisco Franco. As Drew Pearson and Jack Anderson pointed out in their book, The Case Against Congress: A Compelling Indictment of Corruption on Capitol Hill: “Long before Pope John and Pope Paul made it clear they were not in sympathy with the Catholic hierarchy of Spain, the reactionary wing of the Catholic Church in the United States had been conducting one of the most efficient lobbies ever to operate on Capital Hill. It was able to reverse completely American policy on Spain. During the Spanish Civil War, Thomas G. Corcoran, a member of the Roosevelt brain trust, worked effectively at the White House to keep an embargo on all U.S. arms to both sides.”

Corcoran knew that Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini would continue to provide both men and arms to Francisco Franco. Roosevelt’s decision enabled fascism to win in Spain and become entrenched in Europe. Roosevelt later told his cabinet that he had made a “grave mistake” with respect to neutrality in the Spanish Civil War. Roosevelt was angry with Tommy Corcoran over his advice on Spain. He also began to see that Corcoran was becoming a problem for the administration. He had upset a lot of powerful figures in Congress with his arm twisting tactics. Corcoran had also tried to unseat those who attempted to resist Franklin D. Roosevelt. For example, Walter George of Georgia claimed that Corcoran had the “power of saying who shall be a senator and who shall not be a senator.”

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

One day in early October 1940, Franklin D. Roosevelt told Corcoran that he wanted him to resign from the administration. He wanted him to carry out a covert mission and it was “too politically dangerous” to do this while serving in his government.

Roosevelt believed that the best way of stopping Japanese imperialism in Asia was to arm the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-shek. However, Congress was opposed to this idea as it was feared that this help might trigger a war with Japan. Therefore, Roosevelt’s plan was for Corcoran to establish a private corporation as OSS China to provide assistance to the nationalist government in China. Roosevelt even supplied the name of the proposed company, China Defense Supplies. He also suggested that his uncle, Frederick Delano, should be co-chairman of the company. Chiang nominated his former finance minister, Tse-ven Soong, as the other co-chairman. For reasons of secrecy, Corcoran took no title other than outside counsel for China Defense Supplies. William S. Youngman was his frontman in China. Corcoran’s friend, Whitey Willauer, was moved to the Foreign Economic Administration, where he supervised the sending of supplies to China. In this way Corcoran was able to create an Asian Lend-Lease program.

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Tommy Corcoran had originally been an isolationist. However, he now knew that he could make a fortune out of the arms trade. His first major client was Henry J. Kaiser, a successful businessman from California. Corcoran had helped Kaiser obtain lucrative government contracts while working for the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Kaiser paid Corcoran a retainer of $25,000 a year. Corcoran then introduced Kaiser to William S. Knudsen, head of the Office of Production Management. Over the next few years Kaiser obtained $645 million in building contracts at his ten shipyards. Kaiser’s two main business partners were Stephen D. Bechtel and John A. McCone. Kaiser had worked with Bechtel in the 1930s to build many of the major roads throughout California. In 1937 McCone became president of Bechtel-McCone. On the outbreak of the Second World War McCone joined forces with Kaiser and Bechtel to establish the California Shipbuilding Company. With the help of Corcoran, the company obtained large government contracts to build ships. In 1946 it was reported that the company had made $44 million in wartime profits.

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Corcoran’s work with China Defense Supplies caused some disquiet in Roosevelt’s administration. Henry Morgenthau was a prominent critic. He argued that in effect, Corcoran was running an off-the-books operation in which a private company was diverting some of the war material destined for China to a private army, the American Volunteer Group. Resistance also came from General George Marshall and General Joseph Stilwell, the American commander in Asia. Marshall and Stilwell both believed that Chiang Kai-shek was completely corrupt and needed to be forced into introducing reforms. Stilwell complained about Corcoran’s ability to present Chiang in the best possible light with Roosevelt. Stilwell wrote to Marshall that the “continued publication of Chungking propaganda in the United States is an increasing handicap to my work.” He added, “we can pull them out of this cesspool, but continued concessions have made the Generalissimo believe he has only to insist and we will yield.”

Chiang Kai-Shek

Chiang Kai-Shek

Corcoran was also coming under pressure from the work he was doing for Sterling Pharmaceutical. His brother, David worked for the company and was responsible for getting Corcoran the contract. However, it was revealed in 1940 that Sterling Pharmaceutical had strong links with I. G. Farben. The FBI discovered that Sterling had conspired with Farben to control the sale of aspirin. In other words, had formed an aspirin cartel. According to one FBI report, Sterling were employing Nazi sympathizers in its offices in Latin America. Rumours began to circulate that Burton Wheeler would announce that he was appointing a subcommittee to investigate the relations between American and German firms. Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announced he was ready to prosecute any American company aiding and abetting a German company in any part of the world. On 10th April, 1941, the Department of Justice issued subpoenas to Sterling Pharmaceutical. Soon afterwards newspapers began to run negative stories about the company. One claimed that Sterling was helping the Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels fulfill his pledge that “Americans would help Hitler win the Americas.”

On 2nd June, 1941, Roosevelt appointed Francis B. Biddle as his new Attorney General. Biddle was a close friend of Corcoran’s. The day after his appointment, Biddle accepted a settlement offer from Sterling in which the company would pay a fine of five thousand dollars. Later, it was agreed that Sterling would abrogate all contracts with I. G. Farben. In Congress there was speeches made calling for an investigation into the role played by Corcoran in protecting the interests of Sterling Pharmaceutical. Senator Lawrence Smith argued: “It is common gossip in government circles that the long arm of Tommy Corcoran reaches into many agencies; that he has placed many men in important positions and they in turn are amenable to his influences.”

IG Farben

IG Farben

After the United States entered the war against Japan, Germany and Italy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Roosevelt selected Colonel William Donovan as the first director of the organization, who had spent some time studying the Special Operations Executive (SOE), an organization set up by the British government in July 1940. The OSS had responsibility for collecting and analyzing information about countries at war with the United States. The OSS gradually took over the activities that Corcoran had helped set up in China. In 1943 OSS agents based in China included Paul Helliwell, E. Howard Hunt, Mitch Werbell, Lucien Conein, John Singlaub and Ray Cline. According to an article in the Wall Street Journal, some OSS members in China were paid for their work with five-pound sacks of opium.

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One month after the dropping the atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Tommy Corcoran joined with David Corcoran and William S. Youngman to create a Panamanian company, Rio Carthy, for the purpose of pursuing business ventures in Asia and South America. Soon afterwards, Claire Lee Chennault and Whiting Willauer approached Corcoran with the idea of creating a commercial airline in China to compete with CNAC and CATC. Corcoran agreed to use Rio Cathy as the legal vehicle for investing in the airline venture. Chiang Kai-shek agreed that his government would invest in the airline. Corcoran anticipated he would own 37% of the equity in the airline, but Chennault and Willauer gave a greater percentage to the Chinese government, and Corcoran’s share dropped to 28%.

Civil Air Transport (CAT) was officially launched on 29th January, 1946. Corcoran approached his old friend Fiorella LaGuardia, the director general of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). He agreed to award a $4 million contract to deliver relief to China. This contract kept them going for the first year but as the civil war intensified, CAT had difficulty maintaining its routes. The OSS had been disbanded in October 1945 and was replaced by the War Department’s Strategic Service Unit (SSU). Paul Helliwell became chief of the Far East Division of the SSU. In 1947 the SSU was replaced by the Central Intelligence Agency.

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CAT needed another major customer and on 6th July, 1947, Corcoran and Claire Lee Chennault had a meeting with Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, the new director of the CIA. Hillenkoetter arranged for Corcoran to meet Frank Wisner, the director of the Office of Policy Coordination. Wisner was in charge of the CIA’s covert operations. On 1st November, 1948, Corcoran signed a formal agreement with the CIA. The agreement committed the agency to provide up to $500,000 to finance an CAT airbase, and $200,000 to fly agency personnel and equipment in and out of the mainland, and to underwrite any shortfall that might result from any hazardous mission. Over the next few months CAT airlifted personnel and equipment from Chungking, Kweilin, Luchnow, Nanking, and Amoy.

In 1948, Lyndon B. Johnson decided to make a second run for the U.S. Senate. His main opponent in the Democratic primary (Texas was virtually a one party state and the most important elections were those that decided who would be the Democratic Party candidate) was Coke Stevenson. Johnson was criticized by Stevenson for supporting the Taft-Hartley Act. The American Federation of Labor was also angry with Johnson for supporting this legislation and at its June convention the AFL broke a 54 year tradition of neutrality and endorsed Stevenson. Johnson asked Tommy Corcoran to work behind the scenes at convincing union leaders that he was more pro-labor than Stevenson. This he did and on 11th August, 1948, Corcoran told Harold Ickes that he had “a terrible time straightening out labor” in the Johnson campaign but he believed he had sorted the problem out.

Jorge Ubico

Jorge Ubico

In 1949 Sam Zemurray asked Corcoran to join the United Fruit Company as a lobbyist and special counsel. Zemurray had problems with his business in Guatemala. In the 1930s Zemurray aligned United Fruit closely with the government of President Jorge Ubico. The company received import duty and real estate tax exemptions from Ubico. He also gave them hundreds of square miles of land. United Fruit controlled more land than any other individual or group. It also owned the railway, the electric utilities, telegraph, and the country’s only port at Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic coast. Ubico was overthrown in 1944 and following democratic elections, Juan Jose Arevalo became the new president. Arevalo, a university professor who had been living in exile, described himself as a “spiritual socialist”. He implemented sweeping reforms by passing new laws that gave workers the right to form unions. This included the 40,000 Guatemalans who worked for United Fruit.

Zemurray feared that Arevalo would also nationalize the land owned by United Fruit in Guatemala. He asked Corcoran to express his fears to senior political figures in Washington. Corcoran began talks with key people in the government agencies and departments that shaped U.S. policy in Central America. He argued that the U.S. should use United Fruit as an American beachhead against communism in the region.

Chief of OSS China - Paul Helliwell

Chief of OSS China – Paul Helliwell

In January, 1950, Civil Air Transport (CAT) relocated its base of operations to the island of Formosa, where Chiang Kai-shek had established his new government. The following month, the Soviet Union and China signed a mutual defense pact. Two weeks later, President Harry S. Truman signed National Security Directive 64, which stated that “it is important to United states security interests that all practical measures be taken to prevent further communist expansion in Southeast Asia.”

The support of the government in Formosa was to become a key aspect of this policy. In February 1950, Frank Wisner began negotiating with Corcoran for the purchase of CAT. “In March, using a ‘cutout’ banker or middleman, the CIA paid CAT $350,000 to clear up arrearages, $400,000 for future operations, and a $1 million option on the business. The money was then divided among the airline’s owners, with Corcoran and Youngman receiving more than $100,000 for six years of legal fees, and Corcoran, Youngman, and David Corcoran dividing approximately $225,000 from the sale of the airline.” Paul Helliwell was put in charge of this operation. His deputy was Desmond FitzGerald. Helliwell’s main job was to help Chiang Kai-shek to prepare for a future invasion of Communist China. The CIA created a pair of front companies to supply and finance the surviving forces of Chiang’s KMT. Helliwell w as put in charge of this operation. This included establishing the Sea Supply Corporation, a shipping company in Bangkok.

The CIA now launched a secret war against China. An office under commercial cover called Western Enterprises was opened on Taiwan. Training and operational bases were established in Taiwan and other offshore islands. By 1951 Chiang Kai-shek claimed to have more than a million active guerrillas in China. However, according to John Prados, “ United States intelligence estimates at the time carried the more conservative figure of 600,000 or 650,000, only half of whom could be considered loyal to Taiwan.”

After the war Tommy Corcoran continued his work as a paid lobbyist for Sam Zemurray and the United Fruit Company. Zemurray became concerned that Captain Jacobo Arbenz, one of the heroes of the 1944 revolution, would be elected as the new president of Guatemala. In the spring of 1950, Corcoran went to see Thomas C. Mann, the director of the State Department’s Office of Inter-American Affairs. Corcoran asked Mann if he had any plans to prevent Arbenz from being elected. Mann replied: “That is for the people of that country to decide.”

Allen Dulles

Allen Dulles

Unhappy with this reply, Corcoran paid a call on the Allen Dulles, the deputy director of the CIA. Dulles, who represented United Fruit in the 1930s, was far more interested in Corcoran’s ideas. “During their meeting Dulles explained to Corcoran that while the CIA was sympathetic to United Fruit, he could not authorize any assistance without the support of the State Department. Dulles assured Corcoran, however, that whoever was elected as the next president of Guatemala would not be allowed to nationalize the operations of United Fruit.”

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However, political groups continued to resort to violence and in 1949 Major Francisco Arana was murdered. The following year Arbenz defeated Manuel Ygidoras to become Guatemala’s new president. Arbenz, who obtained 65% of the votes, took power on 15th March, 1951. Corcoran then recruited Robert La Follette to work for United Fruit. Corcoran arranged for La Follette to lobby liberal members of Congress. The message was that Arbenz was not a liberal but a dangerous left-wing radical.This strategy was successful and Congress was duly alarmed when on 17th June, 1952, Arbenz announced a new Agrarian Reform program . This included expropriating idle land on government and private estates and redistributed to peasants in lots of 8 to 33 acres. The Agrarian Reform program managed to give 1.5 million acres to around 100,000 families for which the government paid $8,345,545 in bonds. Among the expropriated landowners was Arbenz himself, who had become into a landowner with the dowry of his wealthy wife. Around 46 farms were given to groups of peasants who organized themselves in cooperatives.

In March 1953, 209,842 acres of United Fruit Company’s uncultivated land was taken by the government which offered compensation of $525,000. The company wanted $16 million for the land. While the Guatemalan government valued $2.99 per acre, the American government valued it at $75 per acre. As David McKean has pointed out: This figure was “in line with the company’s own valuation of the property, at least for tax purposes”. However, the company wanted $16 million for the land. While the Guatemalan government valued it at $2.99 per acre, the company now valued it at $75 per acre.

Anastasio Somoza

Anastasio Somoza

Corcoran contacted President Anastasio Somoza and warned him that the Guatemalan revolution might spread to Nicaragua. Somoza now made representations to Harry S. Truman about what was happening in Guatemala. After discussions with Walter Bedell Smith, director of the CIA, a secret plan to overthrow Arbenz (Operation Fortune) was developed. Part of this plan involved Tommy Corcoran arranging for small arms and ammunition to be loaded on a United Fruit freighter and shipped to Guatemala, where the weapons would be distributed to dissidents. When the Secretary of State Dean Acheson discovered details of Operation Fortune, he had a meeting with Truman where he vigorously protested about the involvement of United Fruit and the CIA in the attempted overthrow of the democratically elected President Jacobo Arbenz. As a result of Acheson’s protests, Truman ordered the postponement of Operation Fortune.

Jacobo Arbenz

Jacobo Arbenz

Tommy Corcoran’s work was made easier by the election of Dwight Eisenhower in November, 1952. Eisenhower’s personal secretary was Anne Whitman, the wife of Edmund Whitman, United Fruit’s public relations director. Eisenhower appointed John Peurifoy as ambassador to Guatemala. He soon made it clear that he believed that the Arbenz government posed a threat to the America’s campaign against communism.

Corcoran also arranged for Whiting Willauer, his friend and partner in Civil Air Transport, to become U.S. ambassador to Honduras. As Willauer pointed out in a letter to Claire Lee Chennault, he worked day and night to arrange training sites and instructors plus air crews for the rebel air force, and to keep the Honduran government “in line so they would allow the revolutionary activity to continue.” Eisenhower also replaced Dean Acheson with John Foster Dulles. His brother, Allen Dulles became director of the CIA. The Dulles brothers “had sat on the board of United Fruit’s partner in the banana monopoly, the Schroder Banking Corporation” whereas “U.N. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge was a stockholder and had been a strong defender of United Fruit while a U.S. senator.”

Guatemala

Guatemala

Walter Bedell Smith was moved to the State Department. Smith told Corcoran he would do all he could to help in the overthrow of Arbenz. He added that he would like to work for United Fruit once he retired from government office. This request was granted and Bedell Smith was later to become a director of United Fruit. According to John Prados, the author of The Presidents’ Secret War, Corcoran’s meeting with “Undersecretary of State Walter Bedell Smith that summer and that conversation is recalled by CIA officers as the clear starting point of that plan.” Evan Thomas, the author of The Very Best Me; Daring Early Years of the CIA (2007) has added that: “With his usual energy and skill, Corcoran beseeched the U. S. government to overthrow Arbenz”.

The new CIA plan to overthrow Jacobo Arbenz was called “Operation Success”. Allen Dulles became the executive agent and arranged for Tracey Barnes and Richard Bissell to plan and execute the operation. Bissell later claimed that he had been aware of the problem since reading a document published by the State Department that claimed: “The communists already exercise in Guatemala a political influence far out of proportion to their small numerical strength. This influence will probably continue to grow during 1952. The political situation in Guatemala adversely effects U. S. interests and constitutes a potential threat to U.S. security.” Bissell does not point out that the source of this information was Tommy Corcoran and the United Fruit Company.

Allen W Dulles

Allen W Dulles

John Prados argues that it was Barnes and Bissell who “coordinated the Washington end of the planning and logistics for the Guatemala operation.” As Deputy Director for Plans, it was Frank Wisner’s responsibility to select the field commander for Operation Success. Kim Roosevelt was first choice but he turned it down and instead the job went to Albert Hanley, the CIA station Chief in Korea. Hanley was told to report to Joseph Caldwell King, director of the CIA’s Western Hemisphere Division. King had previously worked for the FBI where he had responsibility for all intelligence operations in Latin America. King suggested Hanley meet Tommy Corcoran. Hanley did not like the idea. King replied: “If you think you can run this operation without United Fruit you’re crazy.” Although Hanley refused to work with Corcoran, Allen Dulles kept him fully informed of the latest developments in planning the overthrow of Arbenz.

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Tracey Barnes brought in David Atlee Phillips to run a “black” propaganda radio station. According to Phillips, he was reluctant to take part in the overthrow of a democratically elected president. Barnes replied: “It’s not a question of Arbenz. Nor of Guatemala. We have solid intelligence that the Soviets intended to throw substantial support to Arbenz… Guatemala is bordered by Honduras, British Honduras, Salvador and Mexico. It’s unacceptable to have a Commie running Guatemala.”

Barnes also appointed E. Howard Hunt as chief of political action. In his autobiography, Undercover (1975), Hunt claims that “Barnes swore me to special secrecy and revealed that the National Security Council under Eisenhower and Vice President Nixon had ordered the overthrow of Guatemala’s Communist regime.” Hunt was not convinced by this explanation. He pointed out that 18 months previously he had suggested to the director of the CIA that Arbenz needed to be dealt with. However, the idea had been rejected. Hunt was now told that: “ Washington lawyer Thomas G. Corcoran had, among his clients, the United Fruit Company. United Fruit, like many American corporations in Guatemala had watched with growing dismay nationalization, confiscation and other strong measures affecting their foreign holdings. Finally a land-reform edict issued by Arbenz proved the final straw, and Tommy the Cork had begun lobbying in behalf of United Fruit and against Arbenz. Following this special impetus our project had been approved by the National Security Council and was already under way.”

John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles

Albert Hanley brought in Rip Robertson to take charge of the paramilitary side of the operation. Robertson had been Hanley’s deputy in Korea and had “enjoyed going along on the behind-the-lines missions with the CIA guerrillas, in violation of standing orders from Washington.” One of those who worked with Robertson in Operation Success was David Morales. Also in the team was Henry Hecksher, who operated under cover in Guatemala to supply front-line reports.John Foster Dulles decided that he “needed a civilian adviser to the State Department team to help expediate Operation Success. Dulles chose a friend of Corcoran’s, William Pawley, a Miami-based millionaire”. David McKean goes on to point out that Pawley had worked with Corcoran, Chennault and Willauer in helping to set up the Flying Tigers and in transforming Civil Air Transport into a CIA airline. McKean adds that his most important qualification for the job was his “long association with right-wing Latin America dictators.”

The rebel “liberation army” was formed and trained in Nicaragua. This was not a problem as President Anastasio Somoza and been warning the United States government since 1952 that that the Guatemalan revolution might spread to Nicaragua. The rebel army of 150 men were trained by Rip Robertson. Their commander was a disaffected Guatemalan army officer, Carlos Castillo Armas. It was clear that a 150 man army was unlikely to be able to overthrow the Guatemalan government. Tracey Barnes believed that if the rebels could gain control of the skies and bomb Guatemala City, they could create panic and Arbenz might be fooled into accepting defeat.

Area of CIA activities in the 1950's

Area of CIA activities in the 1950’s

According to Richard Bissell, Somoza was willing to provide cover for this covert operation. However, this was on the understanding that these aircraft would be provided by the United States. Dwight Eisenhower agreed to supply Somoza with a “small pirate air force to bomb Arbenz into submission”. To fly these planes, the CIA recruited American mercenaries like Jerry DeLarm. Before the bombing of Guatemala City, the rebel army was moved to Honduras where Tommy Corcoran’s business partner, Whiting Willauer, was ambassador. The plan was for them to pretend to be the “vanguard of a much larger army seeking to liberate their homeland from the Marxists”.

Arbenz became aware of this CIA plot to overthrow him. Guatemalan police made several arrests. In his memoirs, Eisenhower described these arrests as a “reign of terror” and falsely claimed that “agents of international Communism in Guatemala continued their efforts to penetrate and subvert their neighboring Central American states, using consular agents for their political purposes and fomenting political assassinations and strikes.” Sydney Gruson of the New York Times began to investigate this story. Journalists working for Time Magazine also tried to write about these attempts to destabilize Arbenz’s government. Frank Wisner, head of Operation Mockingbird, asked Allen Dulles to make sure that the American public never discovered the plot to overthrow Arbenz. Arthur Hays Sulzberger, the publisher of the New York Times, agreed to stop Gruson from writing the story. Henry Luce was also willing to arrange for the Time Magazine reports to be rewritten at the editorial offices in New York.

CIA Stations

CIA Stations

The CIA propaganda campaign included the distribution of 100,000 copies of a pamphlet entitled Chronology of Communism in Guatemala . They also produced three films on Guatemala for showing free in cinemas. Faked photographs were distributed that claimed to show the mutilated bodies of opponents of Arbenz. David Atlee Phillips and E. Howard Hunt were responsible for running the CIA’s Voice of Liberation radio station. Broadcasts began on 1 st May, 1954. They also arranged for the distribution of posters and pamphlets. Over 200 articles based on information provided by the CIA were placed in newspapers and magazines by the United States Information Agency.

The Voice of Liberation reported massive defections from Arbenz’s army. According to David Atlee Phillips the radio station “broadcast that two columns of rebel soldiers were converging on Guatemala City. In fact, Castillo Armas and his makeshift army were still encamped six miles inside the border, far from the capital.” As Phillips later admitted, the “highways were crowded, but with frightened citizens fleeing Guatemala City and not with soldiers approaching it.” As E. Howard Hunt pointed out, “our powerful transmitter overrode the Guatemalan national radio, broadcasting messages to confuse and divide the population from its military overlords.” There was no popular uprising. On 20 th June, the CIA reported to Dwight Eisenhower that Castillo Armas had not been able to take his assigned objective, Zacapa. His seaborne force had also failed to capture Puerto Barrios.

According to John Prados, it all now depended on “Whiting Willauer’s rebel air force”. However, that was not going to plan and on 27th June, Winston Churchill, the British prime minister berated Eisenhower when a CIA plane sank a British merchant vessel heading for Guatemala. The bombing had been ordered by Rip Robertson without first gaining permission from the CIA or Eisenhower. Robertson had been convinced that the Springfjord was a “Czech arms carrying freighter”. In reality it had been carrying only coffee and cotton. Frank Wisner had to make a personal apology for the incident and the CIA later quietly reimbursed Lloyd’s of London, insurers of the Springfjord , the $1.5 million they had paid out on the ship.

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Arbenz had been convinced by the Voice of Liberation reports that his army was deserting. Richard Bissell believes that this is when Arbenz made his main mistake. Jacobo Arbenz decided to distribute weapons to the “people’s organizations and the political parties”. As Bissell later explained: “The conservative men who constituted the leadership of Guatemala’s army viewed this action as the final unacceptable leftward lurch, and they told Arbenz they would no longer support him. He resigned and fled to Mexico.” President Harry Truman became highly suspicious of Corcoran’s activities and he arranged for FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover to place a tap on his phone. Despite his shady business dealings he was never convicted of a criminal offence. Thomas Corcoran died on 7th December, 1981.

Robert Dallek, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times (1991)

Robert A. Caro, Lyndon Johnson: Master of the Senate (2002)

Ray S. Cline, Secrets, Spies and Scholars: Blueprint of the Essential CIA (1976)

David McKean, Peddling Influence (2004)

William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal (1963)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954_Guatemalan_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIA_activities_in_Nicaragua

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIA_activities_in_the_Americas

 

 

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Required Reading: Operation Jedburgh and OSS China – Part 2

EDITOR: Richard Helms, the former CIA director was actively involved in expanding Consortium narcotics activities prior to and during the Vietnam War. He was a key figure for the Bay of Pigs invasion, The Consortium strongly desired an attack on Cuba because Fidel Castro had confiscated a large portion of Consortium Gold that had been laundered into Cuba by the Italian Mafia under the previous regime. Helms was also actively involved in setting up the South American Cocaine Networks through assassination programs during the Nixon Administration. E. Howard Hunt was a major suspect in the JFK Assassination Investigation and was a top level operative in the Nixon White House. Hunt played a major role in carrying out the dirty work of the Nixon Administration and was directly involved in the Watergate cover-up and subsequent investigation. Hunt played a major role in facilitating DEA activities in South America.

Excerpts from Operation Jedburgh

by John Simkin (1997) – Part 2

Jedburgh Team Profiles

Richard Helms

Richard Helms

Richard Helms

Richard Helms was born in St Davids, Philadelphia, on 30th March, 1913. After graduating from Williams College, Massachusetts, he joined the United Press news agency and in 1936 was sent to Nazi Germany to cover the Berlin Olympic Games. On his return to the United States he joined the advertising department of the Indianapolis Times. Two years later he became national advertising manager. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor Helms joined the United States Navy. In August, 1943, he was transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) that had made established by William Donovan. The OSS had responsibility for collecting and analyzing information about countries at war with the United States. It also helped to organize guerrilla fighting, sabotage and espionage.

CIA

CIA

After the surrender of Germany in 1945, Helms helped interview suspected Nazi war criminals. Helms remained in the OSS and in 1946 was put in charge of intelligence and counter-intelligence activities in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The following year Helms joined the recently formed Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). His first task was to mount a mount a massive convert campaign against the Communist Party during the Italian General Election. This was highly successful and this encouraged President Harry S. Truman to establish the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), an organization instructed to conduct covert anti-Communist operations around the world. In August, 1952, OPC and the Office of Special Operations (the espionage division) were merged to form the Directorate of Plans (DPP).

Frank Wisner was appointed head of the DPP and he appointed Helms as his chief of operations. In December, 1956, Wisner suffered a mental breakdown and was diagnosed as suffering from manic depression. During his absence Wisner’s job was covered by Helms. The CIA sent Wisner to the Sheppard-Pratt Institute, a psychiatric hospital near Baltimore. He was prescribed psychoanalysis and shock therapy (electroconvulsive treatment). It was not successful and still suffering from depression, he was released from hospital in 1958.

Allen W Dulles

Allen W Dulles

Wisner was too ill to return to his post as head of the DDP. Allen W. Dulles therefore sent him to London to be CIA chief of station in England. Dulles decided that Richard Bissell rather than Helms should become the new head of the DPP. Helms was named as his deputy. Together they became responsible for what became known as the CIA’s Black Operations. This involved a policy that was later to become known as Executive Action (a plan to remove unfriendly foreign leaders from power). This including a coup d’état that overthrew the Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954 after he introduced land reforms and nationalized the United Fruit Company.

Other political leaders deposed by Executive Action included Patrice Lumumba of the Congo, the Dominican Republic dictator Rafael Trujillo, General Abd al-Karim Kassem of Iraq and Ngo Dinh Diem, the leader of South Vietnam. However, his main target was Fidel Castro who had established a socialist government in Cuba. In March I960, President Dwight Eisenhower of the United States approved a CIA plan to overthrow Castro. The plan involved a budget of $13 million to train “a paramilitary force outside Cuba for guerrilla action.” The strategy was organized by Bissell and Helms. An estimated 400 CIA officers were employed full-time to carry out what became known as Operation Mongoose. Sidney Gottlieb of the CIA Technical Services Division was asked to come up with proposals that would undermine Castro’s popularity with the Cuban people. Plans included a scheme to spray a television studio in which he was about to appear with an hallucinogenic drug and contaminating his shoes with thallium which they believed would cause the hair in his beard to fall out.

Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro

These schemes were rejected and instead Bissell and Helms decided to arrange the assassination of Fidel Castro. In September 1960, Bissell and Allen W. Dulles, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), initiated talks with two leading figures of the Mafia, Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana. Later, other crime bosses such as Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante and Meyer Lansky became involved in this plot against Castro. Robert Maheu, a veteran of CIA counter-espionage activities, was instructed to offer the Mafia $150,000 to kill Fidel Castro. The advantage of employing the Mafia for this work is that it provided CIA with a credible cover story. The Mafia were known to be angry with Castro for closing down their profitable brothels and casinos in Cuba. If the assassins were killed or captured the media would accept that the Mafia were working on their own.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation had to be brought into this plan as part of the deal involved protection against investigations against the Mafia in the United States. Castro was later to complain that there were twenty ClA-sponsored attempts on his life. Eventually Johnny Roselli and his friends became convinced that the Cuban revolution could not be reversed by simply removing its leader. However, they continued to play along with this CIA plot in order to prevent them being prosecuted for criminal offences committed in the United States.

Bay of Pigs

Bay of Pigs

When John F. Kennedy replaced Dwight Eisenhower as president of the United States he was told about the CIA plan to invade Cuba. Kennedy had doubts about the venture but he was afraid he would be seen as soft on communism if he refused permission for it to go ahead. Kennedy’s advisers convinced him that Fidel Castro was an unpopular leader and that once the invasion started the Cuban people would support the ClA-trained forces. On April 14, 1961, B-26 planes began bombing Cuba’s airfields. After the raids Cuba was left with only eight planes and seven pilots. Two days later five merchant ships carrying 1,400 Cuban exiles arrived at the Bay of Pigs. The attack was a total failure. Two of the ships were sunk, including the ship that was carrying most of the supplies. Two of the planes that were attempting to give air-cover were also shot down. Within seventy-two hours all the invading troops had been killed, wounded or had surrendered.

After the CIA’s internal inquiry into this fiasco, Allen W. Dulles was sacked by President John F. Kennedy and Richard Bissell was forced to resign. Helms now took over the Directorate for Plans. His deputy was Thomas H. Karamessines. Helms now introduced a campaign that involved covert attacks on the Cuban economy.

Ngo_Dinh_Diem_-_Thumbnail_-_ARC_542189

Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam

 

In 1962 Helms became increasingly involved in the Vietnam War. By this time President John F. Kennedy was convinced that Ngo Dinh Diem would never be able to unite the South Vietnamese against communism. Several attempts had already been made to overthrow Diem but Kennedy had always instructed the CIA and the US military forces in Vietnam to protect him. Eventually, in order to obtain a more popular leader of South Vietnam, Kennedy agreed that the role of the CIA should change. Lucien Conein, a CIA operative, provided a group of South Vietnamese generals with $40,000 to carry out the coup with the promise that US forces would make no attempt to protect Diem. At the beginning of November, 1963, President Diem was overthrown by a military coup. The generals had promised Diem that he would be allowed to leave the country they changed their mind and killed him.

Conein

Conein

When John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Helms was given the responsibility of investigating Lee Harvey Oswald and the CIA. Helms initially appointed John M. Whitten to undertake the agency’s in-house investigation. After talking to Winston Scott, the CIA station chief in Mexico City, Whitten discovered that Oswald had been photographed at the Cuban consulate in early October, 1963. Nor had Scott told Whitten, his boss, that Oswald had also visited the Soviet Embassy in Mexico. In fact, Whitten had not been informed of the existence of Oswald, even though there was a 201 pre-assassination file on him that had been maintained by the Counterintelligence/Special Investigative Group.

John M. Whitten and his staff of 30 officers, were sent a large amount of information from the FBI. According to Gerald D. McKnight “the FBI deluged his branch with thousands of reports containing bits and fragments of witness testimony that required laborious and time-consuming name checks.” Whitten later described most of this FBI material as “weirdo stuff”. As a result of this initial investigation, Whitten told Richard Helms that he believed that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. On 6th December, Nicholas Katzenbach invited John M. Whitten and Birch O’Neal, Angleton’s trusted deputy and senior Special Investigative Group (SIG) officer to read Commission Document 1 (CD1), the report that the FBI had written on Lee Harvey Oswald. Whitten now realized that the FBI had been withholding important information on Oswald from him. He also discovered that Richard Helms had not been providing him all of the agency’s available files on Oswald. This included Oswald’s political activities in the months preceding the assassination.

Whitten had a meeting where he argued that Oswald’s pro-Castro political activities needed closer examination, especially his attempt to shoot the right-wing General Edwin Walker, his relationship with anti-Castro exiles in New Orleans, and his public support for the pro-Castro Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Whitten added that has he had been denied this information, his initial conclusions on the assassination were “completely irrelevant.” Helms responded by taking Whitten off the case. James Jesus Angleton, chief of the CIA’s Counterintelligence Branch, was now put in charge of the investigation. According to Gerald McKnight (Breach of Trust) Angleton “wrested the CIA’s in-house investigation away from John Whitten because he either was convinced or pretended to believe that the purpose of Oswald’s trip to Mexico City had been to meet with his KGB handlers to finalize plans to assassinate Kennedy.”

Tet Offensive

Tet Offensive

President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Admiral William Raborn, head of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Helms became Raborn’s deputy but became increasingly influential over decisions being made in Vietnam. This included the covert action in neighboring Laos and the formation of South Vietnamese counter-terror teams. The following year Johnson promoted Helms to become head of the CIA. He was the first director of the organization to have worked his way up from the ranks. His standing with Johnson improved when he successfully predicted a quick victory for Israel during the Six Day War in June, 1967. However, Helms information about the size of enemy forces in Vietnam was less accurate. Johnson was told in November, 1967, that the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces had fallen to 248,000. In reality the true figure was close to 500,000 and United States troops were totally unprepared for the Tet Offensive.

Under President Richard Nixon, Helms agreed to implement what became known as the Huston Plan. This was a proposal for all the country’s security services to combine in a massive internal surveillance operation. In doing so, Helms became involved in a secret conspiracy as it was illegal for the Central Intelligence Agency to operate within the United States. In 1970 it seemed that Salvador Allende and his Socialist Workers’ Party would win the general election in Chile. Various multinational companies, including International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), feared what would happen if Allende gained control of the country. Helms agreed to use funds supplied by these companies to help the right-wing party gain power. When this strategy ended in failure, Nixon ordered Helms to help the Chilean armed forces to overthrow Allende. On 11th September, 1973, a military coup removed Allende’s government from power. Allende died in the fighting in the presidential palace in Santiago and General Augusto Pinochet replaced him as president.

Augusto Pinochet

Augusto Pinochet

During the Watergate Scandal President Richard Nixon became concerned about the activities of the Central Intelligence Agency. Three of those involved in the burglary, E. Howard Hunt, Eugenio Martinez and James W. McCord had close links with the CIA. Nixon and his aides attempted to force the CIA director, Richard Helms, and his deputy, Vernon Walters, to pay hush-money to Hunt, who was attempting to blackmail the government. Although it seemed Walters was willing to do this, Helms refused. In February, 1973, Nixon sacked Helms. His deputy, Thomas H. Karamessines, resigned in protest. The following month Helms became U.S. Ambassador to Iran. James Schlesinger now became the new director of the CIA. Schlesinger was heard to say: “The clandestine service was Helms’s Praetorian Guard. It had too much influence in the Agency and was too powerful within the government. I am going to cut it down to size.” This he did and over the next three months over 7 per cent of CIA officers lost their jobs.

E Howard Hunt

E Howard Hunt

On 9th May, 1973, James Schlesinger issued a directive to all CIA employees: “I have ordered all senior operating officials of this Agency to report to me immediately on any activities now going on, or might have gone on in the past, which might be considered to be outside the legislative charter of this Agency. I hereby direct every person presently employed by CIA to report to me on any such activities of which he has knowledge. I invite all ex-employees to do the same. Anyone who has such information should call my secretary and say that he wishes to talk to me about “activities outside the CIA’s charter”. There were several employees who had been trying to complain about the illegal CIA activities for some time. As Cord Meyer pointed out, this directive “was a hunting license for the resentful subordinate to dig back into the records of the past in order to come up with evidence that might destroy the career of a superior whom he long hated.”

In 1975 the Senate Foreign Relations Committee began investigating the CIA. Senator Stuart Symington asked Richard Helms if the agency had been involved in the removal of Salvador Allende. Helms replied no. He also insisted that he had not passed money to opponents of Allende.

Frank Church

Frank Church

Investigations by the CIA’s Inspector General and by Frank Church and his Select Committee on Intelligence Activities showed that Helms had lied to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. They also discovered that Helms had been involved in illegal domestic surveillance and the murders of Patrice Lumumba, General Abd al-Karim Kassem and Ngo Dinh Diem. Helms was eventually found guilty of lying to Congress and received a suspended two-year prison sentence.

In its final report, issued in April 1976, the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities concluded: “Domestic intelligence activity has threatened and undermined the Constitutional rights of Americans to free speech, association and privacy. It has done so primarily because the Constitutional system for checking abuse of power has not been applied.” The committee also revealed details for the first time of what the CIA called Operation Mockingbird. The committee also reported that the Central Intelligence Agency had withheld from the Warren Commission, during its investigation of the assassination of John F. Kennedy, information about plots by the Government of the United States against Fidel Castro of Cuba; and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation had conducted a counter-intelligence program (COINTELPRO) against Martin Luther King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

cointelpro2

On 16th May, 1978, John M. Whitten appeared before the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA). He criticised Richard Helms for not making a full disclosure about the Rolando Cubela plot to the Warren Commission. He added “I think that was a morally highly reprehensible act, which he cannot possibly justify under his oath of office or any other standard of professional service.” Whitten also said that if he had been allowed to continue with the investigation he would have sought out what was going on at JM/WAVE. This would have involved the questioning of Ted Shackley, David Sanchez Morales, Carl E. Jenkins, Rip Robertson, George Joannides, Gordon Campbell and Thomas G. Clines. As Jefferson Morley has pointed out in The Good Spy: “Had Whitten been permitted to follow these leads to their logical conclusions, and had that information been included in the Warren Commission report, that report would have enjoyed more credibility with the public. Instead, Whitten’s secret testimony strengthened the HSCA’s scathing critique of the C.I.A.’s half-hearted investigation of Oswald. The HSCA concluded that Kennedy had been killed by Oswald and unidentifiable co-conspirators.”

John M. Whitten also told the HSCA that James Jesus Angleton involvement in the investigation of the assassination of John F. Kennedy was “improper”. Although he was placed in charge of the investigation by Richard Helms, Angleton “immediately went into action to do all the investigating”. When Whitten complained to Helms about this he refused to act. Whitten believes that Angleton’s attempts to sabotage the investigation was linked to his relationship with the Mafia. Whitten claims that Angleton also prevented a CIA plan to trace mob money to numbered accounts in Panama. Angleton told Whitten that this investigation should be left to the FBI. When Whitten mentioned this to a senior CIA official, he replied: “Well, that’s Angleton’s excuse. The real reason is that Angleton himself has ties to the Mafia and he would not want to double-cross them.”

A man crosses the Central Intelligence A

Whitten also pointed out that as soon as Angleton took control of the investigation he concluded that Cuba was unimportant and focused his internal investigation on Oswald’s life in the Soviet Union. If Whitten had remained in charge he would have “concentrated his attention on CIA’s JM/WAVE station in Miami, Florida, to uncover what George Joannides, the station chief, and operatives from the SIG and SAS knew about Oswald.” When he appeared before the HSCA Whitten revealed that he had been unaware of the CIA’s Executive Action program. He added that he thought it possible that Lee Harvey Oswald might have been involved in this assassination operation. Richard Helms died on 22nd October, 2002. As one commentator pointed out at the time: “Helms had gone to his grave with the sole knowledge of what Congress did not manage to uncover.” His autobiography, A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the CIA, was published in 2003.

E. Howard Hunt

E Howard Hunt

E Howard Hunt

Everette Howard Hunt was born in Hamburg, on 9th October, 1918. During the Second World War Hunt served in the Office of Strategic Services. After the war he joined the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and for a while was stationed in China. While there he met and married Dorothy Hunt. In 1949 Hunt establish the first postwar CIA station in Mexico City. He also worked closely with President Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua.

Hunt was involved in clandestine operations in Guatemala against President Jacobo Arbenz. The plot against Arbenz became part of Executive Action (a plan to remove unfriendly foreign leaders from power). Tracy Barnes was eventually placed in charge of what became known as Operation Success. David Atlee Phillips was appointed to run the propaganda campaign against Arbenz’s government. According to Phillips he initially questioned the right of the CIA to interfere in Guatemala: In his autobiography Phillips claims he said to Barnes: “But Arbenz became President in a free election. What right do we have to help someone topple his government and throw him out of office?” However, Barnes convinced him that it was vital important that the Soviets did not establish a “beachhead in Central America”.

Jacobo Arbenz

Jacobo Arbenz

The CIA propaganda campaign included the distribution of 100,000 copies of a pamphlet entitled Chronology of Communism in Guatemala. They also produced three films on Guatemala for showing free in cinemas. David Atlee Phillips, along with Hunt, was responsible for running the CIA’s Voice of Liberation radio station. Faked photographs were distributed that claimed to show the mutilated bodies of opponents of Arbenz. William (Rip) Robertson was also involved in the campaign against Arbenz. The CIA began providing financial and logistic support for Colonel Carlos Castillo. With the help of resident Anastasio Somoza, Castillo had formed a rebel army in Nicaragua. It has been estimated that between January and June, 1954, the CIA spent about $20 million on Castillo’s army. On 18th June 1954 aircraft dropped leaflets over Guatemala demanding that Arbenz resign immediately or else the county would be bombed. CIA’s Voice of Liberation also put out similar radio broadcasts. This was followed by a week of bombing ports, ammunition dumps, military barracks and the international airport.

Carlos Castillo Armas

Carlos Castillo Armas

Carlos Castillo’s collection of soldiers now crossed the Honduran-Guatemalan border. His army was outnumbered by the Guatemalan Army. However, the CIA Voice of Liberation successfully convinced Arbenz’s supporters that two large and heavily armed columns of invaders were moving towards Guatemala City. The CIA was also busy bribing Arbenz’s military commanders. It was later discovered that one commander accepted $60,000 to surrender his troops. Ernesto Guevara attempted to organize some civil militias but senior army officers blocked the distribution of weapons. Jacobo Arbenz now believed he stood little chance of preventing Castillo gaining power. Accepting that further resistance would only bring more deaths he announced his resignation over the radio.

In 1959 Hunt visited Cuba and decided that Fidel Castro posed a serious threat to the security of the United States: “I wrote a top secret report, and I had five recommendations, one of which was the one that’s always been thrown at me, is that during… or… slightly antecedent to an invasion, Castro would have to be neutralized – and we all know what that meant, although I didn’t want to say so in a memorandum with my name on it.” Hunt played an important role in planning the failed Bay of Pigs invasion.

Hunt was CIA station chief in Mexico during the early 1960s and was rumored to have been involved in the conspiracy to assassinate John F. Kennedy. It was falsely claimed that he was one of the men arrested in Dallas on the day of the murder. In 1970 Hunt officially retired from the Central Intelligence Agency. On the advice of Richard Helms, Hunt went to work for Robert F. Bennett, the head of the Robert Mullen & Co, a small public relations company in Washington.

Egil Krogh

Egil Krogh

On 7th July, 1971, Charles Colson and John Ehrlichman appointed Hunt to the White House staff. Working under Egil Krogh and Gordon Liddy Hunt became a member of the Special Investigations Group (SIG). The group was (informally known as “the Plumbers” because their job was to stop leaks from Nixon’s administration). On 15th May, 1972, Arthur Bremer tried to assassinate George Wallace at a presidential campaign rally in Laurel, Maryland. Wallace was hit four times. Three other people, Alabama State Trooper Captain E. C. Dothard, Dora Thompson, a Wallace campaign volunteer, and Nick Zarvos, a Secret Service agent, were also wounded in the attack.

Richard Nixon was deeply shocked by this event. He told Charles Colson, a member of his White House staff, that he was concerned that Bremer “might have ties to the Republican Party or, even worse, the President’s re-election committee”. Colson now phoned Hunt and asked him to break-in to Bremer’s apartment to discover if he had any documents that linked him to Nixon or his main political opponent in the presidential election, George McGovern. According to Hunt’s autobiography, Undercover, he refused to carry out this order.

Daniel Ellsberg

Daniel Ellsberg

Bob Woodward reported in the Washington Post: “Within hours of the Wallace assassination attempt, a White House official was asked by the Washington Post about the identity of the governor’s attacker. During a subsequent conversation that evening, the official raised the possibility of Bremer’s connection to leftist causes and the campaign of Sen. George McGovern, through literature found in his apartment…. One White House source said that when President Nixon was informed of the shooting, he became deeply upset and voiced concern that the attempt on Gov. Wallace’s life might have been made by someone with ties to the Republican Party or the Nixon campaign.”

Later that year the SIG became concerned about the activities of Daniel Ellsberg. He was a former member of the McNamara Study Group which had produced the classified History of Decision Making in Vietnam, 1945-1968. Ellsberg, disillusioned with the progress of the war, believed this document should be made available to the public. Ellsberg gave a copy of what later became known as the Pentagon Papers to Phil Geyelin of the Washington Post. Katharine Graham and Ben Bradlee decided against publishing the contents on the document.

Daniel Ellsberg now went to the New York Times and they began publishing extracts from the document on 13th June, 1971. This included information that Dwight Eisenhower had made a secret commitment to help the French defeat the rebellion in Vietnam. The document also showed that John F. Kennedy had turned this commitment into a war by using a secret “provocation strategy” that led to the Gulf of Tonkin incidents and that Lyndon B. Johnson had planned from the beginning of his presidency to expand the war.

 

G Gordon Liddy

G Gordon Liddy

On 3rd September, 1971, Hunt and Gordon Liddy supervised the burglary of a psychiatrist who had been treating Ellsberg. The main objective was to discover incriminating or embarrassing information to discredit Ellsberg. Another project involved the stealing of certain documents from the safe of Hank Greenspun, the editor of the Las Vegas Sun. Later, James W. McCord claimed that Greenspun was being targeted because of his relationship with Robert Maheu and Howard Hughes. In 1972 Gordon Liddy joined the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP). Later that year Liddy presented Nixon’s attorney general, John N. Mitchell, with an action plan called Operation Gemstone. Liddy wanted a $1 million budget to carry out a series of black ops activities against Nixon’s political enemies. Mitchell decided that the budget for Operation Gemstone was too large. Instead he gave him $250,000 to launch a scaled-down version of the plan.

One of Liddy’s first tasks was to place electronic devices in the Democratic Party campaign offices in an apartment block called Watergate. Liddy wanted to wiretap the conversations of Larry O’Brien, chairman of the Democratic National Committee and R. Spencer Oliver, executive director of the Association of State Democratic Chairmen. This was not successful and on 3rd July, 1972, Frank Sturgis, Virgilio Gonzalez, Eugenio Martinez, Bernard L. Barker and James W. McCord returned to the Watergate offices. However, this time they were caught by the police. The phone number of Howard Hunt was found in address books of two of the burglars. Reporters were able to link the break-in to the White House. Bob Woodward, a reporter working for the Washington Post was told by a friend who was employed by the government, that senior aides of President Richard Nixon, had paid the burglars to obtain information about its political opponents.

James W McCord

James W McCord

Hunt threatened to reveal details of who paid him to organize the Watergate break-in. Dorothy Hunt took part in the negotiations with Charles Colson. According to investigator Sherman Skolnick, Hunt also had information on the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He argued that if “Nixon didn’t pay heavy to suppress the documents they had showing he was implicated in the planning and carrying out, by the FBI and the CIA, of the political murder of President Kennedy” James W. McCord claimed that Dorothy Hunt told him that at a meeting with her husband’s attorney, William O. Buttmann, she revealed that Hunt had information that would “blow the White House out of the water”.

In October, 1972, Dorothy attempted to speak to Charles Colson. He refused to talk to her but later admitted to the New York Times that she was “upset at the interruption of payments from Nixon’s associates to Watergate defendants.” On 15th November, Colson met with Richard Nixon, H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman at Camp David to discuss Howard Hunt’s blackmail threat. John N. Mitchell was also getting worried by Dorothy Hunt’s threats and he asked John Dean to use a secret White House fund to “get the Hunt situation settled down”. Eventually it was arranged for Frederick LaRue to give Hunt about $250,000 to buy his silence.

Charles Colson

Charles Colson

However, on 8th December, 1972, Dorothy Hunt had a meeting with Michelle Clark, a journalist working for CBS. According to Sherman Skolnick, Clark was working on a story on the Watergate case: “Ms Clark had lots of insight into the bugging and cover-up through her boyfriend, a CIA operative.” Also with Hunt and Clark was Chicago Congressman George Collins. Dorothy Hunt, Michelle Clark and George Collins took the Flight 533 from Washington to Chicago. The aircraft hit the branches of trees close to Midway Airport: “It then hit the roofs of a number of neighborhood bungalows before plowing into the home of Mrs. Veronica Kuculich at 3722 70th Place, demolishing the home and killing her and a daughter, Theresa. The plane burst into flames killing a total of 45 persons, 43 of them on the plane, including the pilot and first and second officers. Eighteen passengers survived.” Hunt, Clark and Collins were all killed in the accident.

The following month Howard Hunt pleaded guilty to burglary and wiretapping and eventually served 33 months in prison. He later told People Magazine (20th May, 1974): ”I had always assumed, working for the CIA for so many years, that anything the White House wanted done was the law of the land. `I viewed this like any other mission. It just happened to take place inside this country.” In a comprehensive analysis of Hunt’s work published in The New York Review of Books in 1973, Gore Vidal argued that Hunt might have written the diary that was found in the car of Arthur H. Bremer, the man who attempted to assassinate George Wallace of Alabama.

JFK

JFK

In August, 1978, Victor Marchetti published an article about the assassination of John F. Kennedy in the liberty Lobby newspaper, Spotlight. In the article Marchetti argued that the House Special Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) had obtained a 1966 CIA memo that revealed Hunt, Frank Sturgis and Gerry Patrick Hemming had been involved in the plot to kill Kennedy. Marchetti’s article also included a story that Marita Lorenz had provided information on this plot. Later that month Joseph Trento and Jacquie Powers wrote a similar story for the Sunday News Journal.The HSCA did not publish this CIA memo linking its agents to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Hunt now decided to take legal action against the Liberty Lobby and in December, 1981, he was awarded $650,000 in damages. Liberty Lobby appealed to the United States Court of Appeals. It was claimed that Hunt’s attorney, Ellis Rubin, had offered a clearly erroneous instruction as to the law of defamation. The three-judge panel agreed and the case was retried. This time Mark Lane defended the Liberty Lobby against Hunt’s action.

Lane eventually discovered Marchetti’s sources. The main source was William Corson. It also emerged that Marchetti had also consulted James Angleton and Alan J. Weberman before publishing the article. As a result of obtaining of getting depositions from David Atlee Phillips, Richard Helms, G. Gordon Liddy, Stansfield Turner and Marita Lorenz, plus a skillful cross-examination by Lane of Hunt, the jury decided in January, 1995, that Marchetti had not been guilty of libel when he suggested that John F. Kennedy had been assassinated by people working for the CIA.As a result of the failed legal action, in June, 1995, Hunt filed for bankruptcy protection from his creditors. Hunt spent his final years quietly in his home in Miami’s Biscayne Park neighborhood with his second wife, Laura Martin Hunt.Edward Howard Hunt died of pneumonia on 23rd January, 2007. His memoir American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate, and Beyond was published in May 2007.

R. Haldeman, The Ends of Power (1978)

Howard Hunt, interview for the television programme, Backyard (21st February, 1999)

Fabian Escalante, The Secret War: CIA Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-62 (1995)

E Howard Hunt, Undercover (1974)

Lalo J. Gastriani, Fair Play Magazine, The Strange Death of Dorothy Hunt (November, 1994)

Victor Marchetti, The Spotlight (14th August, 1978)

Mark Lane, Plausible Denial (1991)

Tad Szulc, Compulsive Spy: The Strange Career of E. Howard Hunt (1974)

Bardach, Slate Magazine (6th October, 2004)

David Wise and Thomas Ross, Invisible Government (1964)

Cord Meyer, journal entry (1st February, 1969)

John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (1986)

Cord Meyer, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA (1983)

Richard Helms, A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the CIA (2003)

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Required Reading – Operation Jedburgh and OSS China Part 1

***EDITOR: The military wing of the Consortium was first formed during World War II in the Office of Strategic Services special operation, Operation Jedburgh. The Jedburgh Teams were the countries first modern elite commandos. They would become connected in Heroin trafficking through the French Resistance, who used the heroin sales to raise money for arms; the heroin was provided by the Spirito-Carbone network through Corsica and Marseilles. Many of the Jedbergh Team commandos would go on to join OSS China, where they would replicate the narco-terrorism techniques used by the French against the Japanese occupation in Southeast Asia. OSS China would become the upper echelon of the newly formed CIA and take control of Southeast Asian heroin.

General John K. Singlaub, Colonel Lucien Conein, and Mitch Werbell III were highly trained commando special operatives that could have easily been classified as ‘super soldiers’ in their own right. The three men have pioneered many of the United States advanced special forces techniques and have accolades from numerous wars; they also pioneered narco-trafficking techniques using military and police assets to control drug flows internationally. General Singlaub is the primary military of the Consortium, having trained many officers within the military high command of the U.S. Army; Colonel Conein and Mitch Werbell III, a legendary mercenary and global arms dealer, became key architects of the DEA and the Consortium control of the international drugs-arms-cash system.

Excerpts from Operation Jedburgh

by John Simkin (1997) – Part 1

Jedburgh Team Profiles

General John K. Singlaub

General John K. Singlaub

General John K. Singlaub

John K. Singlaub was recruited by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during the Second World War. He was parachuted into Nazi occupied France as part of Operation Jedburgh and helped to organize the French Resistance before the D-Day invasion. Later he was sent to OSS China where he worked with Ray S. Cline, Richard Helms, E. Howard Hunt, Jake Esterline, Mitchell WerBell, Paul Helliwell, Jack Anderson, Robert Emmett Johnson and Lucien Conein. Others working in China at that time included Tommy Corcoran, Whiting Willauer and William Pawley.

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Singlaub joined the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and he was sent to Manchuria during the Chinese Civil War. In 1951 he became Deputy Chief of the CIA station in South Korea. Later he moved to Laos where he worked closely with Ted Shackley. In 1964 Singlaub became chief of Military Assistance Command Studies and Observation Group (MACV-SOG). This was an unconventional warfare task force that oversaw assassination and paramilitary operations throughout Southeast Asia. MACV-SOG now took over Oplan 34-A from the CIA. Ted Shackley, CIA chief in Laos, reported having monthly meetings with Singlaub. According to one report, Singlaub “oversaw political assassinations programs in Laos, Cambodia and Thailand” (Bill Moyers, Inside the Shadow Government).

Laos Secret War

Laos Secret War

In 1966 Ted Shackley was placed in charge of CIA secret war in Laos. He appointed Thomas G. Clines as his deputy. He also took Carl E. Jenkins, David Morales, Rafael Quintero, Felix Rodriguez and Edwin Wilson with him to Laos. According to Joel Bainerman it was at this point that Shackley and his “Secret Team” became involved in the drug trade. They did this via General Vang Pao, the leader of the anti-communist forces in Laos. Vang Pao was a major figure in the opium trade in Laos. To help him Shackley used his CIA officials and assets to sabotage the competitors. Eventually Vang Pao had a monopoly over the heroin trade in Laos. In 1967 Shackley and Clines helped Vang Pao to obtain financial backing to form his own airline, Zieng Khouang Air Transport Company, to transport opium and heroin between Long Tieng and Vientiane. In 1968 Shackley and Clines arranged a meeting in Saigon between Santo Trafficante and Vang Pao to establish a heroin-smuggling operation from Southeast Asia to the United States.

Gen. Vang Pao

Gen. Vang Pao

In 1969 Ted Shackley became Chief of Station in Vietnam and headed the Phoenix Program. This involved the killing of non-combatant Vietnamese civilians suspected of collaborating with the National Liberation Front. In a two year period, Operation Phoenix murdered 28,978 civilians. As a specialist in unconventional warfare and covert operations, Singlaub kept a low profile. However, he eventually became chief of staff of the United Nations Command in South Korea. He was forced to resign in May, 1978 after criticizing President Jimmy Carter and his plans to reduce the number of troops in South Korea.

Singlaub in Vietnam

Singlaub in Vietnam

According to Peter Dale Scott, ten days before his retirement, Singlaub attended a meeting of right-wingers who “Didn’t think the country was being run properly and were interested in doing something about it”. The meeting was hosted by Mitchell WerBell. Singlaub now joined forces with Ted Shackley, Ray S. Cline and Richard Helms to get Jimmy Carter removed from the White House. In December, 1979, Singlaub and retired General Daniel Graham headed a delegation from the American Security Council, a private right-wing organization, on a trip to Guatemala. Singlaub pointed out that Ronald Reagan “recognizes that a good deal of dirty work has to be done” in order to destroy communism in Guatemala. “death squad activity in Guatemala increased dramatically following the trip.” Upon his return to the United States Singlaub called for “sympathetic understanding of the death squads” (The Iran Contra Connection: Secret Teams and Covert Operations in the Reagan Era).

Singlaub returned to Guatemala in 1980. This time he went with General Gordon Sumner of the Council for inter-American Security. Singlaub again took a message from Ronald Reagan who was now campaigning for the Presidency of the United States. Singlaub told his audiences that “help was on the way in the form of Ronald Reagan”.

World Anti-Communist League Meeting

World Anti-Communist League Meeting

Singlaub now became involved in extreme right-wing politics. He joined the World Anti-Communist League (WACL). Established in 1966 by the intelligence organizations of Taiwan and South Korea to provide anti-communist propaganda. Fascists played an important role in the WACL and at least three European chapters of the organization were controlled by former SS officers from Nazi Germany. By 1980 the WACL agreed that “Argentine counterterror and torture specialist would be dispatched to El Salvador to assist in the anti-communist struggle there”. (Inside the League) With a $20,000 loan from Taiwan, Singlaub created the U.S. Council for World Freedom (USCWF) in 1981. Singlaub was an advocate of unconventional warfare, which he defined as “low intensity actions, such as sabotage, terrorism, assassination and guerrilla warfare”. Singlaub made clear that the USCWF would provide “support and assistance to the democratic, anti-communist Freedom Fighters of the world.”

JFKsinglaub2

Singlaub in El Salvador

In a speech in San Diego, Singlaub argued: “I am convinced that our struggle with Communism is not a spectator sport. as a result of that view, we have opted for the court of action which calls for the provision of support and assistance to those who are actively resisting the Soviet supported intrusion into Africa, Asia and North America. The geographic regions of WACL must not only provide support to the freedom fighters who are engaged in combat in their own region, but they must develop plans of action to support the resistance movements in other regions of the world.” Over the next few months committees were established to determine the needs of anti-communist resistance movements in Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Nicaragua, and Afghanistan.

Singlaub enjoyed a good relationship with Ronald Reagan and in 1982 USCWF was granted tax-exempt status by the Internal Revenue Service. Singlaub had to give an undertaken that “at no time will the USCWF ever contemplate providing material or funds to any revolutionary, counter-revolutionary or liberation movement”. Soon afterwards Singlaub helped establish a company called GeoMiliTech Consultants Corporation (GMT) a Washington-based arms trading company. In 1984 it is believed that Singlaub organized a shipment of weapons, ammunition and C-4 explosives to the Contras (Moyers).

In January 1985, Singlaub visited South Korea and Taiwan in order to obtain money and weapons for the Contras. Later that year Singlaub developed a plan for a large military action called the “Rainbow Mission” which involved the invasion of Nicaragua by Americans and Contras. This plan was approved by Robert Owen and Oliver North. Soon afterwards Singlaub procured a $5.3 million of Eastern bloc arms for the Contras through GMT. This included 500 pounds of C-4, five ground-to-air missiles, grenades and mortars. Questions began to be asked about Singlaub’s relationship with Oliver North. On 7th October, 1985, Robert McFarlane denied that: “Lieutenant Colonel North did not use his influence to facilitate the movement of supplies to facilitate the movement of supplies to the resistance. There is no official or unofficial relationship with any member of the NSC staff regarding fund raising for the Nicaraguan democratic opposition. This includes the alleged relationship with General Singlaub.”

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In October, 1985, Congress agreed to vote 27 million dollars in non-lethal aid for the Contras in Nicaragua. However, members of the Ronald Reagan administration, including George Bush, decided to use this money to provide weapons to the Contras and the Mujahideen in Afghanistan. Gene Wheaton was recruited to use National Air to transport these weapons. He agreed but began to have second thoughts when he discovered that Richard Secord was involved in the operation and in May 1986 Wheaton told William Casey, director of the CIA, about what he knew about this illegal operation. Casey refused to take any action, claiming that the agency or the government were not involved in what later became known as Irangate.

Wheaton now took his story to Daniel Sheehan, a left-wing lawyer. Wheaton told him that Thomas G. Clines and Ted Shackley had been running a top-secret assassination unit since the early 1960s. According to Wheaton, it had begun with an assassination training program for Cuban exiles and the original target had been Fidel Castro. Wheaton also contacted Newt Royce and Mike Acoca, two journalists based in Washington. The first article on this scandal appeared in the San Francisco Examiner on 27th July, 1986. As a result of this story, Congressman Dante Facell wrote a letter to the Secretary of Defense, Casper Weinberger, asking him if it “true that foreign money, kickback money on programs, was being used to fund foreign covert operations.” Two months later, Weinberger denied that the government knew about this illegal operation.

Gen. Richard V Secord

Gen. Richard V Secord

Singlaub agreed to divert press attention away from the activities of George H. W. Bush, Oliver North, William Casey, Donald P. Gregg, Robert Owen, Felix Rodriguez, Rafael Quintero, Ted Shackley, Richard L. Armitage, Thomas G. Clines and Richard Secord. He gave several interviews where he admitted raising money for the Contras. This included an article in Common Cause where he claimed he had raised “tens of million of dollars… for arms and ammunition”. This money was raised via the World Anti-Communist League. Most of this money came from the governments of Taiwan, South Korea and Saudi Arabia. As the U.S. Neutrality Act bans a private American organization from supplying weapons to foreign groups, Singlaub established a secret overseas bank account to collect this money.

On 5th October, 1986, a Sandinista patrol in Nicaragua shot down a C-123K cargo plane that was supplying the Contras. That night Felix Rodriguez made a telephone call to the office of George H. W. Bush. He told Bush aide, Samuel Watson, that the C-123k aircraft had gone missing. Eugene Hasenfus, an Air America veteran, survived the crash and told his captors that he thought the CIA was behind the operation. He also provided information that several Cuban-Americans running the operation in El Salvador. This resulted in journalists being able to identify Rafael Quintero, Luis Posada and Felix Rodriguez as the Cuban-Americans mentioned by Hasenfus.

George Bush w/ Crack Bag

George Bush w/ Crack Bag

In an article in the Washington Post (11th October, 1986), the newspaper reported that George Bush and Donald P. Gregg were linked to Felix Rodriguez. It gradually emerged that Singlaub, Richard L. Armitage, William Casey, Thomas G. Clines, Oliver North, Edwin Wilson and Richard Secord were also involved in this conspiracy to provide arms to the Contras. On 12th December, 1986, Daniel Sheehan submitted to the court an affidavit detailing the Irangate scandal. He also claimed that Thomas G. Clines and Ted Shackley were running a private assassination program that had evolved from projects they ran while working for the CIA. Others named as being part of this assassination team included Rafael Quintero, Richard Secord, Felix Rodriguez and Albert Hakim. It later emerged that Gene Wheaton and Carl E. Jenkins were the two main sources for this affidavit.

Six days after the publication of Sheehan’s affidavit, William Casey underwent an operation for a “brain tumor”. As a result of the operation, Casey lost the power of speech and died, literally without ever talking. On 9th February, Robert McFarlane, another person involved in the Iran-Contra Scandal, took an overdose of drugs. In November, 1986, Ronald Reagan set-up a three man commission (President’s Special Review Board). The three men were John Tower, Brent Scowcroft and Edmund Muskie. Richard L. Armitage was interviewed by the committee. He admitted that he had arranged a series of meetings between Menachem Meron, the director general of Israel’s Ministry of Defence, with Oliver North and Richard Secord. However, he denied that he discussed the replenishment of Israeli TOW missiles with Meron.

According to Lawrence E. Walsh, who carried out the official investigation into the scandal (Iran-Contra: The Final Report): “By the spring of 1985 it became clear that Congress would not rescue the Contras any time soon. The House defeated a $14 million supplemental aid package in March, leaving the Contras to rely on North and his associates. Alfredo Calero found himself surrounded not only with recommended arms brokers like Secord – who by June 1985 had arranged several large arms shipments – but also willing broker/contribution solicitors like Singlaub.” Walsh also discovered that: “CIA officers in South Korea informed CIA headquarters on January 28, 1985, that retired U.S. Army Major General John K. Singlaub had asked the governing political party to contribute $2 million to the Contras. The Koreans told CIA personnel that some signal from the U.S. Government endorsing the Singlaub request would be necessary.” Walsh obtained a memorandum from Oliver North to Robert McFarlane discussing this issue.

In 1991 John Singlaub published his autobiography, Hazardous Duty: An American Soldier in the Twentieth Century. The reviewer in The New York Times wrote: “In this readable, often engaging memoir, Jack Singlaub sounds like the kind of guy you would want with you in the trenches. But not necessarily after the shooting stops.”

Colonel Lucien Conein

Col. Lucien Conein (rear)

Col. Lucien Conein (rear)

Lucien Conein was born in Paris in 1919. Five years later his widowed mother arranged for him to live with her sister in Kansas City, who had married a soldier in the United States Army (he had served in France during the First World War).

When the Second World War broke out in 1939 Conein returned to France and joined the French Army. After the German invasion in 1940 Conein returned to the United States. He now joined the U.S. Army but because of his knowledge of France he was transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). In 1944 he was sent to Vichy France with orders to help the French Resistance attack the German Army during the Allied landings in Normandy. He worked with the Jedburghs, a multinational band directed by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the British Special Operations Executive (SOE).

Logo_UC

While in France, Conein began working with the Corsican Brotherhood, an underworld organization allied with the resistance. Later Conein was to say: “”When the Sicilians put out a contract, it’s usually limited to the continental United States, or maybe Canada or Mexico. But with the Corsicans, it’s international. They’ll go anywhere. There’s an old Corsican proverb: ‘If you want revenge and you act within 20 years, you’re acting in haste.’ “With the death of Adolf Hitler and the surrender of Germany in April, 1945, Conein was sent to Vietnam where he helped organize attacks against the Japanese Army.

Images of Conein Are Rare

Images of Conein Are Rare

At the end of the Second World War, Conein returned to Europe as a member of the OSS. This included organizing the infiltration of spies and saboteurs into those countries in Eastern Europe under the control of the Soviet Union. Conein later joined the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and was involved in covert operations in several different countries. In 1951, Gordon Stewart, the CIA chief of espionage in West Germany, sent Conein to establish a base in Nuremberg. The following year Ted Shackley arrived to help Conein with his work. The main purpose of this base was to send agents into Warsaw Pact countries to gather information needed to fight the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The venture was not a great success and the governments in both Poland and Czechoslovakia announced that they had smashed several CIA espionage rings. Later he worked with William Harvey in Berlin.

CIA Chief Ted Shackley

CIA Chief Ted Shackley

In 1954 Conein was sent to work under General Edward Lansdale in a covert operation against the government of Ho Chi Minh in North Vietnam. The plan was to mount a propaganda campaign to persuade the Vietnamese people in the south not to vote for the communists in the forthcoming elections. In the months that followed they distributed targeted documents that claimed the Vietminh had entered South Vietnam and were killing innocent civilians. The Ho Chi Minh government was also accused of slaying thousands of political opponents in North Vietnam. In the late 1950s Conein worked closely with William Colby, the CIA station chief in Saigon. Conein helped to arm and train local tribesmen, mostly the Montagnards, who carried out attacks on the Vietminh. These men also guided Vietnamese Special Forces units who made commando raids into Laos and North Vietnam.

Assassination of Diem

Assassination of Diem

President John F. Kennedy eventually became convinced that President Ngo Dinh Diem would never be able to unite the South Vietnamese against communism. Several attempts had already been made to overthrow Diem but Kennedy had always instructed the CIA and the US military forces in Vietnam to protect him. In order to obtain a more popular leader of South Vietnam, Kennedy agreed that the role of the CIA should change. Conein provided a group of South Vietnamese generals with $40,000 to carry out the coup with the promise that US forces would make no attempt to protect Diem. At the beginning of November, 1963, Diem was overthrown by a military coup. After the generals had promised Diem that he would be allowed to leave the country they changed their mind and killed him. Nguyen Van Thieu now became the chairman of a 10-member military directorate.

It has been suggested that Conein might have been involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. In his book, The Last Investigation (1993), Gaeton Fonzi points out that Conein was closely connected to E. Howard Hunt and Mitchell WerBell, two men suspected of the crime. Joseph Trento has also pointed out that Conein worked with Ted Shackley and William Harvey at the JM/WAVE CIA station in Miami in 1963. Leroy Fletcher Prouty claimed that Conein has been identified as being in Dallas on the day of the assassination. Whereas Ron Ecker and Jack White have suggested that he was standing at the corner of Main and Houston at the time Kennedy was killed. However, Larry Hancock has investigated Conein and believes he never left Vietnam during 1963.

Conein in Vietnam

Conein in Vietnam

Conein left the CIA in 1968 and became a businessman in South Vietnam. In 1970 E. Howard Hunt introduced Conein to President Richard Nixon. Two years later Nixon appointed Conein to the Drug Enforcement Administration, where he directed an intelligence-gathering and operations unit. It has been claimed by William Turner and Warren Hinckle in their book, Deadly Secrets, that this work included “plots to assassinate key international drug figures”. In 1972 E. Howard Hunt considered hiring Conein for the group that bungled the 1972 Watergate burglary at the Democratic National Committee headquarters. Conein later told the historian, Stanley Karnow: “If I’d been involved, we’d have done it right.” Lucien Conein died after a heart attack at Suburban Hospital, Virginia, on 3rd June, 1998.

Mitch Werbell III

Mitch Werbell III

Mitch Werbell III

Mitchell Werbell, the son of a former Czarist calvary officer, was born in Philadelphia in 1918. During the Second World War Werbell joined the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and saw action in Burma and China. According to Gaeton Fonzi, this enabled Werbell to join “the superspy fraternity” that included Allen W. Dulles, William Casey, Richard Helms and E. Howard Hunt. After the war, Werbell lived outside of Atlanta. He also worked as an arms dealer. Werbell ran a series of weapon manufacturing and marketing firms including Military Armament Corporation, Defense Services and Quantum Ordnance Bankers. Werbell distributed advanced weaponry to selective foreign groups.

In 1959 WerBell did covert work for Fulgencio Batista in Cuba. During this period be became friends with Gerry P. Hemming, Bernardo De Torres and Gordon Novel. Hemming and Torres were both representatives of WerBell in his arms sales business. WerBell was also rumoured to be involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Roy Hargraves told Noel Twyman that WerBell supplied silencers used by the gunmen in Dallas. Another source said that WerBell was involved with Jack Ruby.

Fulgencio Batista

Fulgencio Batista

WerBell was interviewed by Gaeton Fonzi while carrying out research for his book, The Last Investigation (1993): “There’s a helluva lot I ain’t said yet, and there’s a helluva lot I ain’t gonna say yet… I’ve been in so many places, so many countries, so many revolutions, it’s beginning to get all mixed up in my mind… We don’t play with people like that (Jack Ruby). I mean, it’s as simple as that. This guy Ruby, he called, I didn’t know who the hell he was, but that was years ago.”

Mitch Werbell in the 70s

Mitch Werbell in the 70s

WerBell also did covert work in the Dominican Republic, and Vietnam. In 1966 WerBell served as adviser on Project Nassau, a planned invasion of Haiti by Cuban and Haitian exiles to oust the dictator Francois “Papa Doc” Duvalier. In 1967 WerBell formed a partnership with Gordon Ingram. Together they distributed the Ingram M-11, a hand-held, quiet machine gun. Six years later WerBell and his arms company, Defense Services, were indicted for allegedly trying to sell some of these Ingram submachine guns to a federal undercover agent. He was also indicted for proposing to sell 2,000 of these weapons to Robert Vesco in Costa Rica. Later, both these charges were dropped. Mitchell Livingston WerBell III died of cancer in 1983.

Sources

  1. H. Crerar, Special Warfare (2000)

John K. Singlaub, speech at a World Anti-Communist League meeting in San Diego (4th September, 1984)

John K. Singlaub, Hazardous Duty: An American Soldier in the Twentieth Century (1991)

Joseph E. Persico, review in The New York Times of John K. Singlaub’s Hazardous Duty: An American Soldier in the Twentieth Century (4th August, 1991)

David Corn, Blond Ghost: The Shackley and the CIA’s Crusades (1994)

Seymour Hersh, The Dark Side of Camelot (1997)

Gaeton Fonzi, The Last Investigation (1993)

Alan J. Weberman, Coup D’Etat in America: The CIA and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy (1975)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Jedburgh

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Required Reading – Humble Beginnings

Editor: This article details the re-emergence of government narcotics trafficking during the 1930’s as both a tool of foreign espionage and domestic political control. The model created by Carbone, Spirito and Sabiani would go on to be used by governments and intelligence agencies worldwide to control the flow of international narcotics.  

 

Heroin Fascism: Marseilles, the ‘30s 

by Anonymous (1983)

Sabiani, Carbone and Spirito

Sabiani, Carbone and Spirito

The first link between the Corsicans and the political world came about with the emergence of the 1920’s of Marseilles’ first ‘modern’ gangsters. Francois Spirito and Paul Bonnaventure Carbone (the jolly heroes of the popular 1970’s French film Borsalino). Until their rise to prominence the milieu was populated by number of colorful whose most stable form of investment was usually 2 or 3 prostitutes. Carbone and Spirito changed all that…their 20-year old partnership permanently transformed the character of the Marseilles milieu.

The enterprising team’s first major venture was the establishment of a French staffed brothel in Cairo in the late 1920’s. Upon their return to Marseilles, they proceeded to organize prostitution on a scale previously unknown. But more significantly, they recognized the importance of political power in protecting large scale criminal ventures and its potential for providing a source of income through municipal graft.

In 1931, Carbone and Spirito reached an “understanding” with Simon Sabiani, Marseille’s Pro-Fascism deputy mayor, who proceeded to appoint Carbone’s brother director of the municipal stadium and open municipal employment to associates of the two leaders of the French underworld. In return for these favors, Carbone and Spirito organized an elite corps of gangsters that spearheaded violent Fascist street demonstrations during the depression years of the 1930s.

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All across Europe fascism was gaining strength: Mussolini ruled Italy, Hitler was coming to power in Germany, and emerging French Fascist groups were trying to topple the republic through mass violence. Communist and Socialist demonstrators repeatedly rushed to the defense of the republic, producing a series of bloody confrontations throughout France. In Marseilles, Carbone and Spirito were the vanguard of the Right Wing.

In February of 1934, several days after an inflammatory speech by a Fascist army general, massive street demonstrations erupted on the Canbiere, Marseilles’ main boulevard. The thousands of leftist dock workers and union members who took to the streets dominated the political confrontation until Carbone and Spirito’s political shock force fired on the crowd with pistols. The national police intervened, the workers were driven from the streets and the wounded were carted off to the hospital.

After 4 years of battling Sabiani’s underworld allies in the streets, the left settled its political differences long enough to mount a unified electoral effort that defeated Sabiani and placed a Socialist mayor in office. Although the leftist electoral victory temporarily eclipsed the Fascist-Corsican Alliance, the rise of fascism had politicized the Marseilles underworld and marked its emergence as a major political force in city politics.

General Francisco Franco of Spain

General Francisco Franco of Spain

Although they had lost control of the municipal government, Carbone and Spirito’s economic strength had hardly declined. The emergence of organized narcotics trafficking in the US provided Carbone with the opportunity to open a heroin laboratory in the early 1930’s, while the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War enabled him to engage in the arms traffic.

Carbone and Spirito found their political influence restored in 1940, when German troops occupied Marseilles. Faced with one of the more active resistance movements in France, the Nazi Gestapo unit assigned to Marseilles became desperate for informants and turned to the most prestigious figures in the underworld, who were only too willing to collaborate.

On July 14, 1942 the French Resistance showed its strength for the first time by machine gunning the headquarters of a pro-German political organization in downtown Marseilles (the PPF, who director was the ex-mayor Simon Sabiani). The following afternoon Carbone and Spirito handed the Gestapo a complete list of all involved. For these and other invaluable services, they were lavishly rewarded. This prosperity was short lived, however, for in 1943 Carbone was killed en route to Marseilles when his train was blown up by the Resistance and following the Normandy landing in 1944, Spirito fled to Spain with Sabiani.

In 1947, Spirito came to the US where he enjoyed an active role in the New York-Marseilles Heroin traffic. However he was arrested in New York 3 years later on a heroin smuggling charge and sentenced to 2 years in Atlanta Federal Prison. Upon his release he returned to France, where he was arrested and tried for wartime collaboration with the Nazis; however, after only 8 months in prison, he retired to manage restaurants in the French Riviera, where he remained active in the heroin business.”

*Article from Blacklisted News: Secret Histories From Chicago to 1984

– The Green Chazzan 

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Required Reading

This is a New Series on the Green Pulpit called Required Reading where we bring you books, videos and articles that discuss the formation of the Anglo-American Business Consortium, the formation of the American Narcostate under Republican Primacy and its effect on the international drug trade. This series is meant to inform the American citizen as a follow up to our previous series, the Secret History of the Drug War which can be found here:

https://thegreenpulpit.com/the-secret-history-of-the-drug-war/

Required Reading

  1. America’s 60 Families – Ferdinand Lundberg

Details the history of the cabal of Anglo-American billionaires known as the Consortium from 1865 to 1937, from its origin following the Civil War and Lincoln’s assassination to their political war with FDR during the Great Depression. Describes the elite Anglo-American families in detail, describes the assets that they control and their class war against American labor.

http://www.amazon.com/Americas-60-Families-Ferdinand-Lundberg/dp/1406751464

 

  1. As He Saw It – Elliot Roosevelt

Details the struggles between FDR and Winston Churchill, a prominent member of the Consortium; describes how FDR fought the Anglo-American Consortium to free Africa and the Asian colonies from European domination and FDR’s plan to undo European global control over international trade.  

http://www.amazon.com/As-He-Saw-Elliott-Roosevelt/dp/0837176093/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1416894613&sr=1-1&keywords=As+He+Saw+It&pebp=1416894611292

 

  1. The Emperor Wears No Clothes – Jack Herer

Details the history of marijuana and hemp production in the 1930s; discusses how international control of the cannabis and hemp markets were essential to the success of many European empires.

 

  1. Blacklisted News: Secret Histories From Chicago to 1984 – Numerous Authors

Blacklisted book, details US government corruption and Republican control of the international narcotics trade from Richard Nixon’s election in 1968 to Ronald Reagan’s re-election in 1984 including stories from the 20’s and 30’s. Stories about the recent history of the Consortium. Details the US Narcostate and shares experiences from Hippies, gangsters and Zippies that witnessed the government’s participation in the domestic narcotics trade.

http://www.amazon.com/Blacklisted-News-Secret-Histories-Chicago/dp/0912873000/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1416894670&sr=1-1&keywords=Blacklisted+news&pebp=1416894668340

 

5. Memoirs of Dennis Peron – Dennis Peron and John Entwhistle

Memoir of Dennis Peron’s fight for Medical Marijuana with the San Francisco Police and California Political Machine in the 1970s, the AIDS Crisis in the 1980s and the fight for Proposition 215, the first Marijuana Law in the United States in the mid-1990s. 

http://www.amazon.com/Memoirs-Dennis-legalized-marijuana-response-ebook/dp/B009YBJSAO/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1416894732&sr=1-1&keywords=dennis+peron&pebp=1416894729902

 

6. Freeway Ricky Ross: The Untold Autobiography – Freeway Ricky Ross

Freeway Ricky Ross discusses how he introduced Crack Cocaine into the United States with the help of the Reagan CIA and members of the Consortium within the US military. Author took the fall for the military officials involved in the Iran-Contra Affair.

http://www.amazon.com/Freeway-Rick-Ross-Untold-Autobiography/dp/1499651538/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1416896258&sr=8-1&keywords=freeway+ricky+ross

 

7. Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion – Gary Webb

The book that got its author, Gary Webb, assassinated. Investigates connections between the US intelligence agencies, the drug cartels, foreign mercenaries, multi-national corporations and domestic drug dealing within the United States. Investigates how the Consortium was nearly exposed during the Iran-Contra Affair. 

http://www.amazon.com/Dark-Alliance-Contras-Cocaine-Explosion/dp/1888363932/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1416895996&sr=8-2&keywords=Dark+Alliance

 —

Required Viewing

Behind The Iran-Contra Affair (1988) – 1 hour

*Via Youtube in 8 parts

image

Part 1

Part 2

Oliver-North

Col. Oliver North

Part 3

Part 4

freeway-ricky-ross-race-politics-slavery

Freeway Ricky Ross

Part 5

Part 6

The Consortium

George HW Bush

Part 7

Part 8

Further Reading

http://www.justice.gov/oig/special/9712/

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran-Contra_affair

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIA_and_Contras_cocaine_trafficking_in_the_US

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Anti-Communist_League

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_V._Secord

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singlaub

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_North

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gary_Webb

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%22Freeway%22_Rick_Ross

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Poindexter

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corrections_Corporation_of_America

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contras

 

More to Come as Part of Our Holiday Hidden History Special! 

– The Green Chazzan 

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In The News

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Warrantless Medical Marijuana Raids Unconstitutional, Federal Judge Finds

Pot may be federally illegal, but so is police activity that violates due process. This week, a federal court sided with California medical marijuana patients who are suing Lake County officials for the possibly illegal removal of their cannabis plants. Federal judge Thelton Henderson issued an injunction against the county Tuesday, saying police have to stop ripping up gardens without due process. That’s a major victory for medical cannabis advocates. They say California officials are policing medical marijuana activity illegally some eighteen years after California voters legalized the plant for medical purposes….

http://www.eastbayexpress.com/LegalizationNation/archives/2014/10/16/warrantless-medical-marijuana-raids-unconstitutional-federal-judge-finds

SoCal Cops Adopt Shady Marijuana Raid Tactics Seen In Mendocino

Tensions are high this year in marijuana country, where rumors of a gang of mysterious armed men — who descend from the sky in helicopters to cut down cannabis gardens — have been swirling for the past few months.
At first, ripped-off pot growers in Mendocino and Lake counties suspected private security teams or even crooks dressed up as cops as the perpetrators. After all, the tactics used have been described as paramilitary — lots of camo, no badges —  and no charges or even records of the “raids” are filed or left behind….

http://www.sfweekly.com/thesnitch/2014/10/15/socal-cops-adopt-shady-marijuana-raid-tactics-seen-in-mendocino

Judge halts Lake County warrantless raids on medical pot patients

After a series of warrantless raids on the homes of medical marijuana patients under a voter-approved ordinance in Lake County, a federal judge has called a halt, saying officers need court approval before entering private property and seizing pot plants. The patients are likely to succeed in showing that the searches violated their constitutional rights and were not justified by any emergency, U.S. District Judge Thelton Henderson of San Francisco said Tuesday in an injunction that bars further raids without a warrant. Denying an injunction “would leave numerous medical marijuana patients in Lake County vulnerable to future warrantless seizures of their medicine, which could lead to significant pain and suffering,” Henderson said…..

http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Judge-halts-warrantless-raids-on-homes-of-medical-5825112.php

When Misguided Cops Turn The War On Weed Into A War On Growing Things

If law enforcement officials around the country are going to continue cracking down on marijuana grow operations, especially in heavily armed, unannounced raids, maybe they should consider hiring a botanist or two.Earlier this month, Dwayne Perry of Cartersville, Georgia, was startled out of his bed by a low-flying helicopter. Moments later, WSB-TV reports, heavily armed officers and K-9 units with the Governor’s Task Force for drug suppression showed up, apparently believing they were about to make a weed bust. What they found instead: okra. The vegetable….

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/10/14/marijuana-plants-police_n_5948122.html

Paramilitaries Are Eradicating California’s Illegal Marijuana Grows

In the world-renowned California marijuana growing region known as the Emerald Triangle, the telltale “whoop-whoop-whoop” sound from helicopters combing the sparsely populated mountains during pot harvest season typically sends paranoia through the roof. This year is no exception. For the past month, local law enforcement and the feds have been conducting raids across the Emerald Triangle — Humboldt, Mendocino, and Trinity counties in California — using a massive ex-military chopper bearing a worn-down or scraped off US Air Force insignia, eradicating tens of thousands of plants. But this year, there have reportedly been more cases of state and local law enforcement targeting small farmers with fewer than 50 plants, in compliance with state and local regulations, according to Tim Blake who runs the annual cannabis competition Emerald Cup….

https://news.vice.com/article/paramilitaries-are-eradicating-californias-illegal-marijuana-grows

San Bernardino to crack down on medical marijuana

A study into possibly allowing some medical marijuana dispensaries is out, and a new program of more aggressive enforcement is in. That’s the decision the City Council came to in a closed-session discussion Monday, City Attorney Gary Saenz said. “At this time, the full Common Council has, by consensus, determined that the city will continue its total land-use ban against dispensaries; will not, at this time, ordain to allow regulated dispensaries, and will incorporate additional and more aggressive methods of enforcement in our quest to rid, or significantly reduce, the number of illegal dispensaries operating in our city,” Saenz said….

http://www.sbsun.com/general-news/20141008/san-bernardino-to-crack-down-on-medical-marijuana

Pulling the plug on pot: Anaheim cuts electricity, power to illegal stores

The city is turning the lights off at medical-marijuana dispensaries that illegally opened across the city in a move to get them to leave. The strategy has worked. Last month, nine dispensaries closed, Anaheim spokeswoman Ruth Ruiz said, and eight others likely will be closed by the end of the week. Additionally, 11 others soon will be ordered to shut down or have their water and electricity cut off by Anaheim, which, unlike many cities, operates its own utilities, Ruiz said….

http://www.ocregister.com/articles/anaheim-637604-city-marijuana.html

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The Secret History of the Drug War

Damn it! Someone told the truth Henry!

Damn it Henry! Those damn Jews told the truth!

Due to the increased popularity of our Secret History of the Drug War Series, Team Chazzan is providing an index of all of our Secret History of the Drug War Articles in chronological order for your readership convenience, including our recent title The Devil’s Work: Marijuana in the 20’s and 30’s.

1. The Marijuana and Opium Trades – (1700s & 1800s)

The Secret Past of Marijuana Laws: The Plant and the Poppy

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/03/26/the-secret-past-of-marijuana-laws-the-plant-and-the-poppy/

2. Marijuana in Colonial America – (1700s) 

America: The Venetian Republic Parts 1-2

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/04/27/interlude-america-the-venetian-republic-part-i/

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/04/27/interlude-america-the-venetian-republic-part-2/

3. The Power of the Opium Cartel (Mid 1800s to early 20th Century) 

The Opium Mob 

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/03/27/the-opium-mob/

4. The Roaring 20’s and the Great Depression (Early to mid-20th Century)

The Devil’s Work: Marijuana in the 20’s and 30’s Parts 1-3

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/07/27/the-devils-work-marijuana-in-20s-and-30s-part-1/

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/07/27/the-devils-work-marijuana-in-the-20s-and-30s-part-2/

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/07/27/the-devils-work-marijuana-in-the-20s-and-30spart3/

5. The DEA Years (Vietnam War to Current) 

Narc vs. Narc: The Origins of the Modern Medical Marijuana Movement

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/04/22/narc-vs-narc-the-origins-of-the-modern-medical-marijuana-movement/

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/07/16/narc-vs-narc-2-the-california-cannabis-coup-detat/

The Marijuana Mafia

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/03/19/the-marijuana-mafia/

Marijuana and the California Water Crisis

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/02/24/marijuana-and-the-california-water-crisis/

Activities in Ohio

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/03/21/ohio-gears-up-for-legal-vs-medical-marijuana-showdown/

 

An example of what our patients are up against and a reminder of who we are fighting for, A Must Watch Marijuana Special From Vice News:

Peace & Love.

The Green Chazzan 

 

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The Devil’s Work: Marijuana in the 20’s and 30’s – Part 3

Part 1

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/07/27/the-devils-work-marijuana-in-20s-and-30s-part-1/

Part 2

https://thegreenpulpit.com/2014/07/27/the-devils-work-marijuana-in-the-20s-and-30s-part-2/

The New Dawn and A New Deal

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The use of medical marijuana began to slowly return to popularity in the United States starting in 1930. Farmers and factory workers frequently suffered from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder linked to the Great Depression as well as previous experiences fighting in World War I and they used medical marijuana to keep themselves mentally intact during the harsh, trying times of the Great Depression. The mentality of the entire country experienced an intense sea change as economic ideas surrounding government based central planning were entertained as a replacement for free market capitalism, which had led the country to utter disaster. The American oligarchy became an object of ridicule and absolute contempt by the American public. This could not have been enunciated more by the remarkable landslide election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, considered to be a far left candidate in his era. FDR promised to use the government to make war against the “economic royalists” and “disaster capitalists” who had brought the nation to its very knees. The wealthy absolutely despised Roosevelt from the very beginning, he surrounded himself with liberal thinkers and his way of doing business was intensely different from that of his Republican predecessors.

Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt

Roosevelt, having been born out of a family that had profited heavily from the Consortium’s control of the Republican Party for many decades, was deepfully resentful of his wealthy brethren. Aristocratic jealousies and rivalries towards his natural talents and charisma culminated in his rejection and blackballing from the Porcelian Club, an elite club at Harvard for the wealthy elite, led to deep resentment and hatred for his own, the landed gentry. Roosevelt, through his wife Eleanor, was immensely sympathetic toward the plight of the American people who had been absolutely crushed by almost 50 years of absolute domination and excess by the wealthy elite and the economic collapse that resulted thereafter. Roosevelt declared that his election was a “…more than a political campaign. It is a call to arms” and he was even subtly hinting at the effort the American people would face against the domination of the syndicates, something he would receive help with from a close friend and patriotic mobster, Joe Kennedy. Roosevelt’s victory coalition largely consisted of union members, polish, Italians, jews, and blacks. Roosevelt refused to work with Hoover or compromise with the Republicans regarding an economic solution, knowing full well that they had sold out the economy to America’s criminal and enemies. However, Roosevelt would not be so fortunate as to go untested by the American oligarchy who had become content with their gold heist, regardless of the economic consequences. They would marry into the Anglo-American oligarchy and be able to have their finances stored abroad while ruling a new sharecropper nation domestically. The oligarchy had no intention of having FDR stop them from utterly dominating their newly conquered nation.

Roosevelt took office in 1933, the same year Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. The economy was devastated, over 2 million people had been made homeless and deflation continued to rule global trade. In his inaugural address, Roosevelt stated:

Primarily this is because rulers of the exchange of mankind’s goods have failed through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and have abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men. True they have tried, but their efforts have been cast in the pattern of an outworn tradition. Faced by failure of credit they have proposed only the lending of more money. Stripped of the lure of profit by which to induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortations, pleading tearfully for restored confidence… The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of the restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit.”

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Roosevelt’s First 100 days was known for the enaction of the New Deal, the largest scale domestic reform ever known in US history. The New Deal would be based on an anti-monopoly anti-oligopoly tradition; bigness was seen as a form of wasteful central planning. Safety nets would be enacted; the minimum wage, child labor laws, workers compensation, unemployment compensation, unemployment relief, Social Security, public employment and health insurance would be created in America for the first time. Ideas from Wilson’s mobilization were tooled around increasing job production and harnessing middle and lower class purchasing power. The government would regulate the unfettered competition, the government would stand to protect the people from the abuses of the landed class, the government would stop the monopolies and create jobs, the government would cure the infection of organized crime that had seized its claws into the very fabric of society and the government would tax the rich to pay for all of it. New Deal opponents would be derided publically as the Old Right, servants of the landed class that had brought about the financial apocalypse around them.

Averall Harriman

Averall Harriman

The Depression hit every aspect of life, farms were destroyed, factories closed, job evaporated and both food and money were scarce. The US had been reduced economically to that of a Third World nation within in its own time. The impact on US heavy industry spread throughout the world. European nations collapsed and both fascist and socialist dictatorships took power throughout Europe. Stalin, Hitler, Churchill, and Mussolini all came into their prime during the 1930s. Canada, reliant on illegal alcohol exports to the US, saw their economic output cut in half as impoverished Americans could no longer afford simple liquor sales. American tariffs crushed Caribbean and South American trade. China and Japan went to war over territory, with Japan trying to stave off depression through a war economy. The Consortium came under the power of Colonel Henry Stimson, John Foster Dulles, George Herbert Walker, and Averall Harriman during FDR’s reign, the group had become wealthy making loans through Walker and Harriman’s banking interests to Nazi Germany. The German government was  very uninhibited when it came to human rights limitations on chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Harriman and Prescott Bush would become the bankers that funded Nazi Germany’s economic programs during the 1930s. Stimson was commissioned to bring down FDR at any cost and he decided to do so by utilizing his Anglican connections to agitate a war in Europe.

Col. Henry Stimson

Col. Henry Stimson

Stimson knew he could not touch FDR politically, he was simply too popular and the newly redirected Federal Bureau of Investigations had become a formidable opponent as well. Roosevelt’s Vice President, Henry A. Wallace, was one of the New Deal architects and even more liberal than Roosevelt was. The Economy Act balanced the federal budget by reorganizing the government but allowed for future deficit spending for emergency economic action. Congress distributed the Bonus Bill to the World War I veterans, something previously denied by the Republican government. The New Dealers promoted Keynesianism with balanced budgets as a pragmatic approach to creating start-up economic expansion. FDR passed the Emergency Banking Act which reopened shuttered banks with new cash injections from the Federal Reserve; Treasury officials were given greater law enforcement power as many banks had been previously owned by the Syndicate and were not eligible for Treasury funds. The Glass-Steagall Act limited interaction between the Commercial and Investment Banks to protect the consumer from the frauds that had been perpetrated by the banking community during the 1920s. The banking reform created unprecedented economic stability. The Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to create the SEC to monitor the banks owned by the wealthy and protect the stock market from speculative attacks by traders loyal to either the City of London or their own greed.

WPA Project

WPA Project

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Public relief agencies were created to immediately aid the working poor and create jobs. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) created the National Recovery Administration which had a blanket mandate to raise consumer purchasing power through job creation and industrial regeneration. The NRA worked closely to empower unions and give the workers greater ownership of the workspace in which they operated. Wages had to be fair and working conditions had to be safe and fair. Price stabilization was enacted to control deflation and the NRA aided in this by creating jobs in industries like coal production. The NRA became a major target for the American upper class and the Republican Party as it regulated industry in a way that to them was unheard of and far more equitable to the middle and working classes. The Public Works Administration created millions of jobs building bridges, airports, roads, dams, post offices, courthouses and highways. The Resettlement Administration (RA), the Rural Electrification Administration (REA), rural welfare projects sponsored by the WPA, National Youth Administration (NYA), Forest Service and Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) were created to develop forests, the national parks, create utility infrastructure for towns, build schools and reforest lands to improve the environment which had been devastated by the Dust Bowl, a product of corporate farm mechanization and centralization. The Tennessee Valley Authority was created as one of the largest dam projects the world had ever known. The FHA was created to regulate housing and trade was liberalized to end the trade gridlock created by the Republican tariffs. The Gold Standard was suspended to allow the Treasury to inject emergency liquidity to stave off the disastrous deflation; the Wall Street brokers smirked at this knowing that much of America’s gold had been sent to London in 1931.

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Most importantly, Roosevelt repealed Prohibition and not just Alcohol Prohibition; he also repealed the 1922 Narcotics Drug Import and Export Act and curbed the Harrison Tax Act to make medical marijuana and more importantly, hemp, economically available. The Bureau of Narcotics oversight over medical marijuana and hemp was severely limited by the New Deal, and the advent of the AAA at first. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) was originally created to regulate food prices, giving farmers a chance at last to fight Wall Street speculators and obtain fair food prices. Hemp was the most widely cultivated, most widely distributed and most profitable crop the farmers were allowed to produce from 1933 to 1945.

 

AAA

To quote Jack Herer:

Modern technology was about to be applied to hemp production, making it the number one agricultural resource in America. Two of the most respected and influential journals in the nation, Popular Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, forecast a bright future for American hemp. Thousands of new products creating millions of new jobs would herald the end of the Great Depression….As early as 1901 and continuing to 1937, the USDA repeatedly predicted that, once machinery capable of harvesting, stripping and separating the fiber from the pulp was invested or engineered, hemp would once again be America’s number one farm crop….The prediction was reaffirmed in the popular press when Popular Merchanics published its February 1938 article “Billion Dollar Crop…a trillion dollar industry by today’s standards.

New Deal Hemp Farm

New Deal Hemp Farm

From the article Jack is referencing:

American farmers are promised a new cash crop with an annual value of several million dollars, all because a machine has been invented which solves a problem more than 6,000 years old. It is hemp, a crop that will not compete with other American products. Instead it will displace imports of raw materials and manufactured products produced by under paid [immigrant] and peasant labor and it will provide thousands of jobs for American workers throughout the land…..Hemp is the standard fiber of the world. It has great tensile strength and durability. It is used to produce more than 5,000 textile products, ranging from rope to fine laces, and the woody hurds remaining after the fiber has been removed containmore than 77% cellulose, and can be used to produce more than 25,000 products, ranging from dynamite to Cellophane.

From the farmers point of view, hemp is an easy crop to grow and will yield from three to six tons per acre on any land that will grow corn, wheat, or oats….Thousands of tons of hemp hurds are used every year by one large powder company for the manufacture of dynamite and TNT. A large paper company, which has been paying millions of dollars a year in duties on foreign made cigarette papers now is manufacturing these papers from American hemp grown in Minnesota….Our imports of foreign fabrics and fibers average about $200 million a year; in raw fibers alone we imported over $50 million a year in the first six months of 1937. All of this income can be made available to Americans.

New Deal Hemp Company

New Deal Hemp Company

 

1930's Hemp Field

1930’s Hemp Field

Excerpt from New Deal Era literature:

“Aside from the suspension of the Gold Standard (the first and foremost important price lifting measure) and the closing and re-opening of the banks, the most spectacular early measures of the New Deal were the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the National Industrial Recovery Act. Both were nullified by the Supreme Court which, by these very decision, contributed greatly to the outcry for judicial reform. The AAA gave subsidies to farmers for taking land out of cultivation, and did much to raise farm purchasing power in consonance with the basic aim of the New Deal….Within one year the AAA increased farm income by 38% and farm purchasing power by an estimated 25% through the inauguration of the very production control method that was originally used by the industrialists. The cost of the fam subsidy was paid for by a small imposed sales tax. The NIRA, approved June 16 1933..’intended’ to (1) legalize those voluntary trade associations which President Hoover had discouraged by removing the restraints of anti-trust laws; (2) to make them effective by bringing the recalcitrants into line through compulsion; but (3) to bestow these privileges upon trade and industry in return for their acknowledgement of social responsibility in the form of concessions to labor and the consumer….the cold blooded, ruthless fashion in which the industrialists consciously moved to vitiate these provisions of the section that was beneficial to labor perhaps did more to educate the country about the socially irresponsible character of the big proprietors than had all the preachments of the radicals for years. Moreover the pathetic eagerness with which a vast multitude grasped at just $12 a week, and the outcry from the Southern Industrialists against such ‘high wages’ drove into public consciousness the fact that labor in the United States, except its aristocracy in the AFL craft unions, had long been fiercely exploited at coolie pay. Details of the farm situation highlighted in the debate around the AAA, also had a similar educative effect, so that if the New Deal did nothing else it succeeded, in these and other of its efforts, in implanting a deep suspicion in the public mind about the motives and methods of the big feudalistic proprietors, who habitually masquerade as simple businessman.

The gigantic program of unemployment relief embarked upon by the New deal was of direct aid to retail trade and to the farmers in that the money paid out to the unemployed went immediately to the purchase of necessities. Several government agencies were created to handle the projects, but the WPA, launched on May 6 1935, finally consolidated all the divisions of relief. Works Progress funds were allocated to naval building, to municipal improvements, and construction where local governments shared part of the cost, to reforestation, and many other ends; the principal aim however was to get money into circulation. In connection with the building and construction phases of this program there was of course, a demand for cement, stone, machinery, steel, and lumber, which was of benefit to heavy industry; but the benefit was neither so great nor as immediate as that conferred upon industries more closely aligned with the retail market.

Meanwhile, various measures designed to hamper banks in their domination of heavy industry were passed under presidential authority. The first of these was the Banking Act of 1933, which divorced commercial and investment banking, provided for insurance deposits, and vested in the Federal Reserve Board the right to control loans entering speculative channels. The separation of the deposit and underwriting functions of the banks was a blow directed consciously at JP Morgan , and measurably weakened the power of that and other private banking houses. Not at all strangely, this action was sought and approved by Winthrop Aldrich, chair of the Rockefeller’s Chase Bank. Weakened under Hoover, the Rockefellers were strengthened for a time by the New Deal- by the sharp rise in oil prices, and the improvement of the real estate market, and although John D Rockefeller Jr. outwardly maintained his Republicanism, the Standard Oil clans helped the New Deal at many points and manifested cordiality to its acts. The New Deal reciprocated by doing nothing in its early stages at least, to disturb or injure the Standard Oil Empire. After passage of the Banking Act, JP Morgan immediately set up Morgan Stanley for handling securities issues, but as this branch was effectively segregated from the central house the firm could no longer function as freely as of old. Extension of the powers of the Federal Reserve Board by giving it control over the open market committee and over the reserve requirements of membership banks also weakened JP Morgan power in finance…symbolic of the new regime Marriner S. Eccles, small banker and mining entrepreneur from Utah, was made governor of the Reserve Board. Control of the money market was transferred to Washington, was thereafter to be by whoever controlled the government.”

-Ferdinand Lundberg, America’s 60 Families (1937)

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Despite FDR’s ability to unite the middle and working class into an industrial powerhouse he still faced grave issues with the American oligarchy and the Republican establishment. The oligarchy may have lost complete control of the Presidency but they still retained power over the Supreme Court and large portions of the press. FDR often had to defend his New Deal initiatives in the US Federal Court system against the Republican activist judges seeking to rule his recovery programs unconstitutional on behalf of the oligarchical interest. He responded to this by unveiling the second half of the New Deal which passed the Social Security Act, creating welfare and a social safety net; the Wagner Act, giving unions the right to form and collectively bargain; the WPA was expanded even further to create major projects like the Lincoln Tunnel, LaGuardia Airport, the Bay Bridge, and many other large urban restoration projects that laid the seeds for later Great Society projects. The Revenue Act of 1935 hit the wealthy the hardest, it was literally designed to redistribute wealth from the top to the bottom. The bill imposed an income tax of 79% on incomes over $5 million, making the tax code equitable for the first time since its implementation. The rich called Roosevelt a ‘traitor to his class’ in utter hatred of his dismantling of their empire of greed. He also enacted the Housing Act of 1937 to abolish slums and create a housing authority.

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Lend-Lease Hemp Promotion

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New Deal Hempfield

FDR also opened a new front against the Anglo-American elite by empowering the FBI to initiate surveillance against them. Fiorello LaGuardia, the notorious anti-Mafia Mayor of New York, came to power in 1932 as well on a large anti-crime ticket; he worked closely with J. Edgar Hoover to bring down ‘The Big Heat’ on the American Syndicate. He had Lucky Luciano arrested, purged the New York police force of corruption, led search-and-destroy lynch mobs against Syndicate casinos and black market rackets. The Syndicate responded by unleashing their assassins on a country wide bank robbing spree to destabilize the economy. Hoover worked with notorious gangster hunter Melvin Purvis to bring down Syndicate bank robbers like John Dillinger, Ma Barker, Babyface Nelson, Creepy Karpis, and Machine Gun Kelly. The FBI also played a pivotal role in rounding up the criminal members of the KKK, especially those who had penetrated Southern California city administrations in the 1920s and set up racial rackets. LaGuardia was also joined by Thomas Dewey, a Republican prosecutor; a former Wall Street trader, that sought to end New York corruption after losing much of his fortune in the crash. Dewey targeted Lucky Luciano’s Upstart “Commission” which had taken over the power vacuum left by the fall of Mr. Arnold and Al Capone.

Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia

Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia

One of his biggest prizes was gangster Dutch Schultz, whom he had battled as both a federal and state prosecutor. Schultz’s first trial ended in a deadlock; prior to his second trial, Schultz had the venue moved to Malone, New York, then moved there and garnered the sympathy of the townspeople through charitable acts so that when it came time for his trial, the jury found him innocent, liking him too much to convict him.

Dewey and La Guardia threatened Schultz with instant arrest and further charges. Schultz now proposed to murder Dewey. Dewey would be killed while he made his daily morning call to his office from a pay phone near his home. However, New York crime boss Lucky Luciano and the “Mafia Commission” decided that Dewey’s murder would provoke an all-out crackdown. Instead they had Schultz killed.”

  • MacMillian, The Five Families (2008)

The Mafia suffered further setbacks as fascism took over continental Europe and Benito Mussolini began a purge of Sicilian mob leaders to consolidate power within Italy. This disrupted the French Connection which relied heavily on Turkish opium in the 1930s and for Sicilian intermediaries which had been disconnected by Fascist Italy. Narcotics income practically went to zero after the New Deal’s AAA reform decriminalized medical marijuana and hemp. When Mussolini took power in the mid-twenties he went on a tour of the country to present his new leadership program of fascism to the entire country; when in Palermo, he was received by Don Francisco Ciccio, the mayor of Palermo who insulted Mussolini when he was told he would not need a police escort. Mussolini responded that fascists did not need a peasant escort insulting Ciccio. The Don ordered the townspeople not to attend Mussolini’s speech and released patients from the local mental ward to attend instead. The deeply angered Mussolini appointed Cesare Mori to form a secret police in Sicily that would end the Mafia dominance once and for all. Mori would be one of the most swift, effective and brutal opponents the Mafia had ever encountered.

Cesare Mori

Cesare Mori

Mori took up his post in Palermo in November 1925 and remained in office until 1929. Within the first two months he arrested over five hundred men, a number that would only grow in the following years. In January 1926, he undertook what was probably his most famous action, the occupation of the village of Gangi, a stronghold of various criminal gangs. Using carabinieri and police forces he ordered house-to-house searches, picking up bandits, small-time Mafia members and various suspects who were on the run. He did not hesitate to lay siege to towns, use torture, or take women and children as hostages to oblige suspects to give themselves up. These harsh methods earned him the nickname of “Iron Prefect”.

Mori understood the basis of Mafia power. In order to defeat the phenomenon, he felt it necessary to “forge a direct bond between the population and the state, to annul the system of intermediation under which citizens could not approach the authorities except through middlemen…, receiving as a favour that which is due them as their right.” Mori’s methods were sometimes similar to those of the Mafia. He did not just arrest the bandits, but sought to humiliate them as well. If he could exhibit a strong central authority to rival the mafia, the people would see that the Mafia was not their only option for protection.

Mori’s inquiries brought evidence of collusion between the Mafia and influential members of the State apparatus and the Fascist party. His position, however, became more precarious. Some 11,000 arrests are attributed to Mori’s rule in Palermo. That led to massive amounts of paperwork in order to prepare for the trials, which may have been partially responsible for his dismissal. Mussolini had already nominated Mori as a senator in 1928, and in June 1929 he was relieved of his duty. The Fascist propaganda proudly announced that the Mafia had been defeated.”

  • Newark, Mafia Allies (2007)

Roosevelt’s Challenge

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Seeking to preemptively stop the Supreme Court from dismantling the second New Deal, FDR attempted his court packing plan with the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937. The bill allowed the President to power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S. Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six. FDR had also punished many of the Lochner Era judges by pushing them out of the court through pension cut threats. The court attempted to stop one of FDR’s critical measures: Executive Order 6102. This order seized the gold held by the wealthy, in the form of coins, bullion and certificates and exchanged them for dollars at fixed rate. This was to prevent the wealthy from manipulating the money supply with their gold and London accounts as they had previous done throughout the last 50 years. The court ruled that the government could not seize the gold, even though it was being done to protect the currency from speculative attack by the European powers. Chief Justice Charles Evan Hughes had a personal vendetta against FDR and also had close relations with the British Royal Family, the Dutch Royal Family and the Du Pont family who were ardently opposed to FDR’s allowance of hemp production. Hughes led the challenge against FDR’s attempt to break the railroad monopoly, the New Deal farm subsidies, stock market regulations, the NRA and NIRA, the AAA and the New Deal coal program. The Supreme Court ruled on many of these on “Black Monday” on May 27, 1935. Roosevelt’s court packing bill was unfortunately defeated, but his attempt to unseat the oligarchies power in the court led to more desperate and violent ends to stop his reforms.

Chief Justice Charles Evan Hughes

Chief Justice Charles Evan Hughes

FDR won a stunning landslide reelection in 1936 much to the chagrin of the American landed elite. He had a strong anti-imperialist foreign policy which derided the exploitation and immiseration caused by the British and French Empires and their colonialism of other continents. FDR also wished to renounce the right to unilateral intervention in South America and give more diplomatic power to international bodies. He became more critical of Adolf Hitler, especially as FDR’s enemies began to rally around Hitler with Henry Ford. Col. Stimson, head of the Anglo-American Consortium  began conspiring with Churchill on ways to compel FDR to comply with British wishes and also on ways to assassinate FDR as well. He had already been the target of several coup attempts, one most infamously participated in by Prescott Bush and Averall Harriman called the Business Plot. The coup was averted by the testimony of Smedley Butler who became opposed to the American oligarchy after the Bonus Army massacre. The Consortium  would be indicted again by FDR for supplying illegal monies and arms shipments to Hitler during World War II in 1942 under the Union Banking Corporation, those named in the indictment included many Consortium  leaders: Averell Harriman, E Roland Harriman, Prescott Bush, Samuel Pryor, Fritz Thyssen, and Robert Lovett.

Prescott Bush

Prescott Bush

One of the top targets of the oligarchies response to FDR’s court packing attempt was the new hemp crop propping up the Middle Class. Not only was it an industrial threat to the Anglo-American oil, pharmaceutical and vice companies but it was the main engine driver of FDR’s New Deal programs and the oligarchy believed that if the crop could once again be controlled it’s decline would also defeat the New Deal.

In the mid-1930.when the new mechanical hemp fiber stripping machines and machines to conserve hemp’s high cellulose pulp finally became state-of-the-art, available and affordable, the enormous timber acreage and businesses of the Hearst Paper Manufacturing Division, Kimberly Clark USA, and virtually all other timber, paper and large newspaper holding companies stood to lose billions of dollars and perhaps go bankrupt.

Coincidently in 1937, DuPont had just patented processes for making plastics from oil and coal as well as a new sulfite process for making paper from wood pulp…accounting for over 80% of all the companies railroad carloadings over the next sixty years into the 1990s. If hemp had never been made illegal, 80% of DuPont’s business never would have materialized…jeopoardizing the lucrative financial schemes of Hearst, DuPont and DuPont’s Chief Financial backer, Andrew Mellon of the Mellon Bank of Pittsburgh”

-Jack Herer

Andrew Mellon

Andrew Mellon

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Andrew Mellon, evil billionaire and executive harbinger of the Great Depression immediately set to work employing his ex-cronies within the Bureau of Narcotics, chiefly Henry J. Anslinger to reinstitute marijuana and hemp prohibition through a press based social engineering campaign using Hearst’s media resources. Anslinger was actually married to Mellon’s niece and he shared in Mellon’s lucrative financial ties. The idea for the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was developed originally to create a tax to profit off the sale of medical marijuana and hemp synthesis as a medical application, it was originally designed from firearms taxes but both Mellon, DuPont, Anslinger and Hearst intended to meddle with the act to generate a different result.

In the secret Treasury Department meetings conducted between 1935 and 1937, prohibitive tax laws were drafted and strategies were plotted. Marijuana could not be banned outright; the law called for an ‘occupational’ excise tax upon dealers and a transfer tax upon dealings in marijuana. Importers, manufacturers, sellers and distributors were required to register with the Secretary of the Treasury and pay the occupational tax.”

-Jack Herer

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Anslinger led a very public, racially charged campaign backed by the American oligarchy against medical marijuana. He was opposed by the AMA and Fiorello LaGuardia, but Anslinger abused his Bureau of Narcotics position to strip pro-marijuana doctors of their licenses, corralling the AMA into submission despite medical evidence to the contrary. Anslinger debated publically with LaGuardia while leading a highly publicized drug seizure campaign with the Bureau of Narcotics against medical marijuana. Medical marijuana dealers were derided as being ethnic and of the criminal underworld. Racist and classist media was used to turn American views against marijuana as a corrupting illicit drug. Reefer Madness was born. The blow to the AAA by the Supreme Court firmly put medical marijuana back in Anslinger’s jurisdiction and abusing the regulations of the Marijuana Tax Act, he barred all marijuana dealers from being federally licensed by the Treasury Department effectively putting a halt to hemp production at the national level. Marijuana production for hemp would only be allowed going forward by the Bureau of Narcotics for oligarchical dealers that wished to grow hemp on their lands in US territories for the military.

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FDR also faced another challenge from the Department of the Navy in which Henry Stimson had become very influential and was bringing the relationship between US and British naval intelligence closer for his own purposes. This led to penetration of Naval Intelligence by British Intelligence who openly recruited members of the American syndicate to serve as intelligence operatives in Europe. Stimson sought to counter FDR next by realigning the military apparatus and officer’s corps behind him which was more effective than trying to bribe FDR military loyalists like Smedley Butler, Douglas MacArthur and Dwight Eisenhower. Stimson also directed the oligarchies efforts to unseat Vice President Henry Wallace during the Democratic National Committee and replace him with Harry Truman, a Stimson loyalist and someone who could eventually turn Eisenhower to their influence. He was much colder and calculating than the brash Harriman, Bush and Walker business coup attempts, which had failed numerously throughout FDR’s tenure; the public battles with the court also brought more criticism against oligarchical power and gave FDR more strength to expand the New Deal. FDR had also started the Lend-Lease program with the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, an economic program for the British and French that demanded payment in gold. If Hitler went to war, FDR could repatriate gold through lend lease, Stimson knew that more extreme measures would be necessary.

Henry Wallace

Henry Wallace

Stimson and John Foster Dulles began to direct members of the Consortium to begin increasing financial and military backing to Adolf Hitler and the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. This occurred most notably during the Spanish Civil War from 1936 to 1939 which served as preliminary war game for the greater conflict to come. Hitler would conquer Europe, Hitler would destroy their rivals, Hitler would conquer the world and anoint the wealthy the master race of all Earth. Competition among the American oligarchy and the British peerage broke out over who was pro-New Deal and who was pro-Hitler. Neither accepted Stalinist Communism, but both stood behind the economic miracles of the American New Deal and Nazism. Both ideas were similar in method but differed immensely in execution; both ideas revolved around central planning but while FDR sought to support and restore market conditions, Hitler sought to fundamentally alter the world order. Neither of them wanted the dominance of a British reserve currency any longer; the British had destroyed the world economy and a new reserve currency had to emerge. Hitler’s aggression towards the Jews and other European states beginning in 1938 was the end result of decades of evil and excess by an unforgiving and unapologetic sect of the power elite. The Consortium could not seize the reins of power in America back from FDR and the New Deal Democrats, so they preferred to destroy it by backing Hitler’s plans for world domination. Stimson would also provoke the Japanese by utilizing his connection to strain trade relations between the Japanese Empire and the US. FDR routinely plotted against Stimson and Churchill with Vice President Wallace and Joe Kennedy; he had become keenly aware of what the American oligarchy and the British oligarchy were trying to perpetuate but he faced a big problem, the American gold still remained within City of London vaults and that the power of the Consortium would continue until America could repatriate the stolen precious metals. FDR knew Stimson and the Consortium wanted to drag America into the war to force a war economy that they could control, especially through opium and pharmaceutical sales for the war injured; he opposed the war on that principle, having now spent his Presidential career in battle with these oligarchical forces. However, he knew that he would eventually have to convince the American people to make war, otherwise financial recovery would be impossible because the Nazi’s would seize American gold reserves in London that were needed to pay down the Depression debts.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler

This ultimate prospect was what forged the fateful, albeit temporary alliance, between FDR and Stimson that lasted from 1940 to 1945; unifying the American public with the American elite to stop the ultimate evil that was Adolf Hitler from ruling the world. By 1940, the British had been defeated by the Nazis at the Battle of Dunkirk and the Battle of Britain raged against the English isles; the Royal Family now paid for its sins in the face of total annihilation against the Frankenstein monster of their own creation, the Nazi War Machine. The City of London was under constant bombing by the German Luftwaffe and fears that the international and royal gold reserves of London would be seized by a foreign power became a reality for the first time. The Nazi’s had already confiscated Jewish and foreign gold from seized territories throughout Europe and were using the proceeds to generate currency to continue the massive wear effort; seizing the City of London would be the economic coup d’grace and the ultimate triumph for Hitler. Both FDR and Stimson feared that the United States would never recover from such a blow nor remain under the control of either side, but rather through financial obligation to Nazi Germany. However, despite cooperation, the Consortium continued to work against FDR and the New Deal by financially aiding the Nazis and funding strikebreakers like the KKK, American Legion and the German Bund; namely the Bush and Walker families who envisioned a Nazi victory in Europe.

Nuremburg

Nuremburg

Stimson, in an uneasy affair, would become Roosevelt’s Secretary of War in 1941. Stimson appointed top members of the Consortium, Robert Patterson, Robert Lovett, the Dulles Brothers and Stimson’s right hand, John McCloy, to executive positions within FDR’s cabinet. Stimson also elevated the career of Republican loyalist General George Patton in an attempt to coerce Gen Dwight Eisenhower under his influence to maintain rank over Patton. The Consortium reached out to Lucky Luciano to provide top recruits from the Mob that could serve as officers within the Army and Navy of whom Stimson and his loyalist officers could use to form the OSS under the purview of Consortium officer William Donavon. Stimson’s new group of Consortium upstarts would later be instrumental in the assassination of John F Kennedy. Stimson, along with Oppenheimer, is considered one of the fathers of the atomic bomb; he took direct personal control of the project and his advice was followed at every aspect by both Roosevelt and Truman. Stimson overruled military officers when they opposed his views and often destroyed their careers. This would be proven later when under his influence Gen Douglas MacArthur was pushed from the military high command by Stimson’s lackey Harry Truman.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

 

“He was the only top government official who tried to predict the meaning of the atomic age—he envisioned a new era in human affairs. For a half century he had worked to inject order, science, and moralism into matters of law, of state, and of diplomacy. His views had seemed outdated in the age of total warfare, but now he held what he called “the royal straight flush.” The impact of the atom, he foresaw, would go far beyond military concerns to encompass diplomacy and world affairs, as well as business, economics and science. Above all, said Stimson, this “most terrible weapon ever known in human history” opened up “the opportunity to bring the world into a pattern in which the peace of the world and our civilization can be saved.” That is, the very destructiveness of the new weaponry would shatter the ages-old belief that wars could be advantageous. It might now be possible to call a halt to the use of destruction as a ready solution to human conflicts. Indeed, society’s new control over the most elemental forces of nature finally “caps the climax of the race between man’s growing technical power for destructiveness and his psychological power of self-control and group control–his moral power.”

  • Stimson’s Memoir
John McCloy

John McCloy

Stimson’s White House coup came in early 1945, when Henry Wallace was unseated as Vice President at the Democratic National Convention in January; he had feuded publically with many of the oligarch’s over labor rights and had been trashed repeatedly for it in the newspapers. The political effects of the media’s assault finally took their toll and he was replaced by Harry Truman, a pawn of Averall Harriman. This event was shortly followed by FDR’s assassination on April 12 of 1945; he had already suffered declining health after several poisoning attempts between 1941 and 1944. He was poisoned while vacationing at his personal retreat in Georgia, his death was attributed to stress from years of political struggle, overwork, sleeplessness and general declining health from traveling to peace negotiation with Britain and Russia. FDR’s son alleged that Stalin informed him that Churchill had ultimately been responsible for the poisoning of FDR, possibly beginning at the conference at Yalta. Stimson retired at the end of the war, but before doing so he appointed members of the Consortium to Truman’s cabinet, they would be infamously known as “The Wise Men”: McGeorge Bundy, George Kennan, the Dulles Brothers, Robert Lovett, John McCloy, Dean Acheson, Charles Bohlen and Averall Harriman.

General Douglas MacArthur

General Douglas MacArthur

The Wise Men of the Consortium would be instrumental in putting a halt to the reforms implemented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal. The Wise Men empowered Anslinger to further ends and put a young Congressman named Joseph McCarthy under his wing to serve as a protégé. The Wise Men would retool the CIA to go after the OAS’ opium fields in Indochina and from there they would restart the international opium trade with the help of their mafia connections established through Lucky Luciano, who would be freed from jail along with his mafia associates in Italy under the guise of anti-communism. The same lines from the 1920’s Red Scares would be drummed up again, marijuana use would be blamed on unionists, socialists and communists. The Wise Men would work with the Syndicate Upstarts in Hollywood to bring Ronald Reagan to power within the Hollywood union; Reagan persecuted many of the left wing stars under the guise of anti-communism to remove their influence from opposing Syndicate/Wise Men influence in Hollywood. The major opposition to the Wise Men came in the form of FDR’s close friends General Douglas MacArthur and Joe Kennedy, father of JFK, RFK and Ted Kennedy. Joe Kennedy was FDR’s business and Syndicate confidant, the head of the old Irish Mob, a bootlegger, a marijuana smoker, and a man with contempt for the likes of Capone, Luciano and especially Stimson. He was known with actively feuding with many of FDR’s enemies, including the Canadian Bronfman/Seagram’s families which Kennedy competed with using distilleries managed by FDR’s son, James Roosevelt. Samuel Bronfman was also a member of the Consortium and a founder of modern Canadian conservative power brokers.

Joe Kennedy

Joe Kennedy

General Douglas C. MacArthur, super-patriot and epic war hero, successfully retained much of the power of the American military command from the Wise Men until midway through the Korean War when Averall Harriman and Dean Acheson were successfully able to put enough pressure on Truman to force a removal over MacArthur’s perceived insubordination to the Wise Men’s intentional mismanagement of the conflict. Korea, to the Consortium, was a distraction to be created while ex-syndicate members now represented in the Italian Mob, CIA, MI6 and OAS set up opium facilities in Turkey, Sicily, France, Spain, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Burma to create an international opium distribution network that was more vast than any other known in world history, yet secret and hidden from the public through control of media outlets and trafficking flows. Joe Kennedy was wiser than his counterpart and used his wealth to financially align himself with Joseph McCarthy as a form of protection primarily for John F Kennedy, whom he was already grooming for President to restore the New Deal. He also groomed his other son Robert Kennedy to become Attorney General and use his families’ connections to effectively combat the Italian Mafia that had been borne from Luciano’s Commission. Kennedy knew he would have to fight the Republican Wise Men in the top world, the Mafia Commission in the underworld and the Consortium in the back world to protect the gains achieved socially and economically by the New Deal. Joe Kennedy would die shortly after JFK would become President. He would not witness the assassinations of his sons at the hand of the Consortium, nor would he see the dismantling of his friend and mentor, Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s, achievements for the American people be dismantled following the election of Richard Nixon and the era of Consortium rule that was to follow.

JFK

JFK